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for Books and Writers
by Bamber Gascoigne

A(lan) A(lexander) Milne (1882-1956)


English writer, the creator of Winnie-the-Pooh. Milne wrote many different kinds of books, humorous verses and light comedies as a staff member of Punch, and the detective novel The Red House Mystery (1922), which was severely criticized by Raymond Chandler. In spite of his fame as a children's book writer, A. A. Milne was not "inordinately fond" of children.

On Wednesday, when the sky is blue,
And I have nothing else to do,
I sometimes wonder if it’s true
That who is what and what is who. |

On Thursday, when it starts to freeze
And hoar-frost twinkles on the trees,
How very readily one sees
That these are whose—but whose are these?

(from Winnie-the-Pooh by A. A. Milne, decorations by E. H. Shepard, McClelland & Stewart, Fifth Printing. 1931, p. 98)

Alan Alexander Milne was born in London. His father, John V. Milne, owned a private school at Mortiner Road, the Henley House. Among the teachers were, for some time, the science fiction writer H.G. Wells. Milne said of his father that he "was the best man I have ever known: by which I mean the most truly good, the most completely to be trusted, the most incapable of wrong." (Fathers of Influence: Inspiring Stories of Men Who Made a Difference in Their Children and Their World, 2006, pp. 60-61) Milne's mother, Sarah Maria Heginbotham, entrusted the upbringing of her sons to her husband. Sundays were reserved for religion: the children did not read secular books. He read them Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.

A gifted mathematician, Milne won a scholarship to Westminster School when he was only eleven. He studied mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge, and edited the undergraduate magazine Granta. After receiving his B.A. in 1903, he started his career as a freelance writer. Milne's essays and poems were published in the satirical magazine Punch and St. James' Gazette. In 1906 he joined the staff of Punch, becoming the magazine's assistant editor.

At H.G. Wells's suggestion Milne turned some of his sketches into a novel. His first work, Lovers in London, came out in 1905. The following books were collections of his Punch pieces. In the 1910s Milne became well known as a playwright, notably for Mr Pim Passes By (1919).

In 1913 Milne married Dorothy de Sêlincourt – "She laughed at my jokes," he said later in his autobiography. Their only son, Christopher Robin Milne, was born in 1920. During World War I Milne served in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment as a signals officer. He was posted to France briefly in 1916 and wrote propaganda for the Intelligence service. The horrors he witnessed in the war left him a lifelong nostalgia for the idyllic fantasies of childhood. "A 'children's book' must be written, not for children, but for the author himself," he once said. When the disillusioned post-war writers depicted the contemporary "lost generation," Milne took a look in the past, the Winnie-the-Pooh world of safety.

After the war the comedy The Dover Road (1921) continued Milne's successful career as a playwright. Toad of Toad Hall (1929), a dramatization based on Kenneth Grahame's The Wind in the Willows (1908), seems to have survived perhaps as well as the original work.

The majority of Milne's plays were produced in London and in Broadway. Their popularity enabled him to buy in 1925 a country home, Cotchford Farm, in Sussex. Most of the time the family still spent in London, going down to Cotchford only at week-ends. There, in a small and dark room, with a window that looked over the courtyard, Milne wrote his works, smoking his pipe. And after dinner, he usually solved crosswords. The Cotchford Farm was bought by the original leader of the Rolling Stones, Brian Jones, who drowned in 1969 in the swimming pool. The Stones' guitarist Keith Richards wrote in his autobiography, that the construction worker Frank Thorogood, who lived in the house, made a deathbed confession that he had killed Jones. "Whether he did or not I don't know. Brian had bad asthma and he was taking quaaludes and Tuinals, which are not the best things to dive under water on." (Life by Keith Richards, 2010, p. 272)

Milne's The Red House Mystery draws heavily on the tradition of Sherlock Holmes. Its lack of realistic details and cosy atmosphere prompted Raymond Chandler to write: "The detective in the case in an insouciant amateur named Anthony Gillingman, a nice lad with a cheery eye, a cosy little flat in London, and that airy manner. . . . The English police seem to endure him with their customary stoicism; but I shudder to think of what the boys down at the Homicide Bureau in my city would do to him." ('The Simple Art of Murder,' in Pearls Are Nuisance, 1964, p. 188 ) Milne's other mysteries include Four Days' Wonder (1933) and the drama The Fourth Wall (1928). It was made into a film under the little Birds of Prey (1930; U.S. title: The Perfect Alibi), directed by Basil Dean, starring Frank Lawton and Dorothy Boyd. "For today's audiences, about the only interest this curio holds is seeing later screen stalwarts Frank Lawton, C. Aubrey Smith, Nigel Bruce and Jack Hawkins . . . working at the start of the sound era." (RKO Radio Pictures Horror, Science Fiction and Fantasy Films, 1929-1956 by Michael R. Pitts, 2015, p. 229).

At the age of 42 Milne published When We Were Very Young, a collection of poetry for children. It was illustrated by his friend and colleague from Punch, E.H. Shepard, who was paid fifty pounds for the job. Shepard illustrated books for nearly thirty years for various authors, among them Kenneth Grahame (The Wind in the Willows) and Frances Hodgson Burnett (The Secret Garden).

Winnie-the-Pooh (1926) was also originally illustrated by Shepard. The best-selling of Milne's books was set in Ashdown forest. Its stories feature Milne's son Christopher (1920-1996) with various talking animals and animated versions of his toys – the famous teddy-bear, Piglet, Tigger, Eeyore, and others. The House at Pooh Corner (1928) presented the further adventures of Pooh Bear and his friends. During Milne's lifetime, Pooh already became an industry, producing toys, and later comics and such films as Winnie-the-Pooh and the Honey Tree (1996) from Disney. 

Like Peter Pan and Lewis Carrol's Alice, Winnie-the-Pooh has been a target of psychological analysis. Much attention has been paid to the absence of Christopher Robin's mother. However, this is not a unique trait of the book. Walt Disney also left mothers (and fathers) out of the world of Donald Duck and Mickey Mouse. Religious imagery is missing, too. Milne had examined his religious beliefs in The Ascent of Man (1928) and recorded twenty years later his thoughts in the long poem The Norman Church (1948), published by Methuen. He made a clear distinction between the subjective God "made in Man's own image" and "the objective GOD". "We think of God as 'Him' because / Man ruled the world and made the laws, / And, seeking GOD, could only find / A man-like image in his mind. / To women, too, of Eastern race / Who meekly sat with covered face, / Submissive to their lord's degree, / The Lord was naturally 'He' — / What other pronoun use? What else was there to be?" This book was not published in the United States. Milne's son Christopher received a conventional religious education. Although he was given two Christian names, he was never christened, nor confirmed. Milne left him to develop his own faith.

Christopher Milne has said that he had problems coping with the legendary literary figure created about him. (Nevertheless, his life wasn't a tragedy, as it was the in case with Michael Llewelyn Davies, the model for J.M. Barrie's Peter Pan.) According to Christopher Milne, his mother, Daphne, invented stories about toy animals and provided most of the material for his father's books.

His relationship with his parents Christopher Milne analyzed in Enchanted Places (1975). He emphasized that his father did not feel sentimental about children. Noteworthy, Milne's famous poem 'Vespers' – beautifully sung by Vera Lynn – is actually about a little boy who is pretending to say his prayers; they mean "nothing to a child of three, whose thoughts are engaged with other, more exciting matters", Milne wrote in 'Preface to Parents.' Dorothy Milne sent the poem to Vanity Fair in New York, where it was published in January 1923. Christopher Milne said of 'Vespers': "It is one of my father's best know and one that has brought me over the years more toe-curling, fist-clenching, lip-biting embarrassment than any other." (Enchanted Places, p. 42)

In the 1930s and 40s Milne was active in religious and pacifist polemics. He was certain that war would extinguish civilization. Milne recognized the threat of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy but regarded preparations for defense as dangerous to peace as preparations for war. At the age of fifty-six he published his autobiography, It's Too Late Now (1938), which focused mostly on his childhood years. For the Pooh books he devoted eight "rather unhappy" pages, as Christopher Milne put it.

During WW II,  after P.G. Wodehouse made some light-hearted broadcasts from Germany for CBS radio shortly after being captured in 1940, Milne broke with his former friend and became his bitter opponent. "We were supposed to be quite good friends, but, you know, in a sort of way I think he was a pretty jealous chap", Wodehouse explained later in an interview. "I think he was probably jealous of all other writers." ('P.G. Wodehouse (1975)' in The Paris Review Interviews, IV, introduction by Salman Rushdie, 2009, p. 168) Milne gave up his pacifism for a period.

Like many famous British authors, from H.G. Wells and Somerset Maugham to C.S. Forester, Milne was enlisted by the British Information Services (BIS) to do propaganda work. In Hartfield and Forest Row he served as a Captain of the Home Guard. Christopher Milne fought in the Middle East and Italy. While in Trieste, he fell in love with a girl named Hedda. Christopher Milne tells in his autobiography The Path Through the Trees (1979) that she taught him "a lot of things: about Italy, about Italians, about women, about love, about myself" (The Path Through the Trees, p. 114) Moreover, she helped him to loosen the bond that tied him to his father.

An operation on Milne's brain in 1952 left him an invalid during the last four years of his life. "It is ghastly to think of anyone who wrote such gay stuff ending his life like this," Wodewhouse said in a letter. (P. G. Wodehouse: A Life in Letters, edited by Sophie Ratcliffe, 2011, p. 467) Milne died in Hartfield, Sussex, on January 31, 1956. After his wife's death in 1971, part of the fortune earned by the Pooh books came to the Royal Literary Fund, providing for writers in financial distress.

What becomes of Pooh's name, Milne said in the 'Introduction' of the 1926 McClelland & Steward edition of Winnie-the Pooh: "Now this bear's name is Winnie, which shows what a good name for bears it is, but the funny thing is that we can't remember whether Winnie is called after Pooh, or Pooh after Winnie. We did know once, but we have forgotten. . . ."  (Ibid., Fifth Printing. 1931, p. viii) 

For further reading: The Enchanted Places by Christopher Milne (1974); A.A. Milne: A Critical Biography by Tori Haring-Smith (1982); Secret Gardens by H. Carpenter (1985); A.A. Milne: The Man Behind Winnie-the-Pooh by A. Thwaite (1990); A.A. Milne by J.C. Wheeler and R.A. Walner (1992); The Brilliant Career of Winnie-the Pooh by Ann Thwaite (1994); The Pooh Dictionary by A.R. Melrose (1995); The Lives and Fantasies of Lewis Carroll, Edward Lear, J. M. Barrie, Kenneth Grahame and A. A. Milne by Jackie Wullschlager (1996); A. A. Milne: His Life by Ann Thwaite (2007); Goodbye Christopher Robin: A.A. Milne and the Making of Winnie-the-Pooh by Ann Thwaite (2017); The Art of Winnie-the-Pooh: How E. H. Shepard Illustrated an Icon by James Campbell (2017); Winnie-the-Pooh: Exploring a Classic by Annemarie Bilclough and Emma Laws (2017); The Extraordinary life of A.A. Milne by Nadia Cohen (2017); Positioning Pooh: Edward Bear after 100 Years, edited by Jennifer Harrison (2021) Other translations into Finnish: Suomeksi on julkaistu myös Nalle Puh - kootut kertomukset ja runot (1997, Winnie-the-Pooh: the Complete Collection of Stories and Poems), joka sisältää Winnie-The-Pooh -teoksen lisäksi myös lorukirjat When We Were Very Young ja Now We Are Six. Muita suomennoksia: Kaniinin aamiainen (1987, The King's Breakfast); Nalle Puh seikkailee (1980, Winnie the Pooh - Walt Disney adaptation); Puhin jumppakirja (1991); Nalle Puhin mietekirja (1991, several rep., The Pooh Book of Quotations); Nalle Puhin päiväkirja (1991, Winnie the Pooh Journal)

Selected works:

  • Lovers in London, 1905
  • The Day's Play, 1910 (sketches and verse rptd from Punch)
  • The Holiday Round, 1912 (sketches rprd from Punch)
  • Once A Week, 1914 (sketches rprd from Punch)
  • Happy Days, 1915 (sketches rprd from Punch)
  • Once on a Time, 1917
  • Wurzel-Flummery: A Comedy in Two Acts, 1917
  • The Boy Comes Home: A Comedy in One Act, 1918
  • Make-Believe, 1918 (a children's play, lyrics by C.E. Burton)
  • Belinda: An April Folly in Three Acts, 1918
  • Mr. Pim Passes By: A Comedy in Three Acts, 1919
    - Films: Mr. Pim Passes By, 1921, dir. Albert Ward, starring Peggy Hyland, Campbell Gullan and Maudie Dunham; TV drama 1949, in Kraft Television Theatre, starring Valerie Cossart, Geoffrey Lumb and Rex O'Malley; TV drama 1952, in BBC Sunday-Night Theatre; TV drama 1957, in Matinee Theatre, starring Edward Everett Horton
  • The Camberley Triangle: A Comedy in One Act, 1919
  • Not That It Matters, 1919 (essays)
  • First Plays, 1919 (contains Wurzel-Flummery; The Lucky One; The Boy Comes Home; Belinda; The Red Feathers )
  • The Stepmother: A Play in One Act , 1920
  • The Romantic Age: A Comedy in Three Acts, 1920
    - TV drama 1950, in Kraft Television Theatre, starring Dean Harens and Bethel Leslie
  • The Red Feathers, 1920 (included in First Plays)
  • If I May, 1920
  • The Bump, 1920 (screenplay)
    - Film 1920, dir. Adrian Brunel, starring C. Aubrey Smith, Faith Celli and Douglas Marshall
  • Five Pound Reward, 1920 (screenplay)
    - Short film 1920, dir. Adrian Brunel, starring Leslie Howard, Barbara Hoffe and Sydney Lewis Ransome 
  • Bookworms, 1920 (screenplay)
    - Short film 1920, dir. Adrian Brunel, starring Leslie Howard, Pauline Johnson and Henrietta Watson
  • Mr. Pim, 1921 (based on the play; as Mr Pim Passes By, 1929)
  • The Sunny Side, 1921
  • Second Plays, 1921 (contains Make-Believe; Mr. Pim Passes By; The Camberley Triangle; The Romantic Age; The Stepmother)
  • The Great Broxopp: Four Chapters in Her Life, 1921 (produced in New York in 1921, in London at the St Martin's Theatre on March 6th, 1923)
    - TV drama 1950, in Kraft Television Theatre, starring Faith Brook, Rex O'Malley and Chet Stratton
  • The Truth about Blayds: A Comedy in Three Acts, 1921 (first performance December 20th at the Globe Theatre) - TV drama 1952, in Robert Montgomery Presents, starring Robert Montgomery, Romney Brent, Robert Cummings, Anna Lee
  • The Dover Road: A Comedy in Three Acts, 1921 (produced in New York in 1921, in London at the Theatre Royal on June 7th 1922)
    - Films: The Little Adventuress, 1927, dir. William C. de Mille, starring Vera Reynolds, Phyllis Haver and Robert Ober; Where Sinners Meet, 1934, dir. J. Walter Ruben, starring starring Diana Wynyard, Clive Brook and Billie Burke; TD drama 1955, in Kraft Television Theatre, starring  John Cromwell, Larry Gates and Leueen MacGrath
  • The Red House Mystery, 1922
    - Punaisen talon arvoitus (suom. Risto Hannula, 1973)
  • Three Plays, 1922 (includes The Dover Road; The Truth About Bladys; The Great Broxopp)
  • Berlud, Unlimited, 1922
  • The Lucky One, 1922 (included in First Plays, 1919 as Let's All Talk About Gerald)
  • Success, 1923 (first performance 21 June 1923; as Give Me Yesterday, 1931)
  • The Artist: A Duologue, 1923
  • The Man in the Bowler Hat: A Terribly Exciting Affair, 1924
  • To Have the Honour: A Comedy in Three Acts, 1924 (produced in London at the Wyndham's Theatre on April 24th, 1924, as To Meet the Prince)
  • When We Were Very Young, 1924 (verse)
  • Ariadne; or, Business First, 1924 (produced in New York and London, first performance on April 22nd at the Theatre Royal)
  • A Gallery of Children, 1925 (stories)
  • For the Luncheon Interval, 1925
  • King Hilary and the Beggarman, 1926
  • Four Plays, 1926 (contains To Have the Honour; Ariadne; Portrait of a Gentleman in Slippers; Success)
  • [Selected Works], 1926 (7 vols.; The Red House Mystery, the and collections of essays and sketches only)
  • Portrait of a Gentleman in Slippers: A Fairy Tale, 1926 (produced in Liverpool in 1926, in London 1927)
  • Winnie-the-Pooh, 1926
    - Several film adaptations including Winnie-the Pooh, TV series 1952, prod. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC); The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh, 1977, prod. Walt Disney Productions; Pooh's Grand Adventure: The Search for Christopher Robin, 1997, prod. Walt Disney Television Animation; The Book of Pooh, TV series 2000,  prod. Disney Channel, Shadow Projects; Piglet's Big Movie, 2003, prod. Walt Disney Pictures; Winnie the Pooh, 2011, prod. Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios 
    - Nalle Puh (suom. Anna Talaskivi, 1934; Kersti Juva, 1976)
  • Now We Are Six, 1927 (verse)
  • The Ivory Door: A Legend in a Prologue and Three Acts, 1927
  • Miss Marlow at Play: A One-Acts Comedy, 1927
    - TV drama 1953, in Lux Video Theatre, starring Binnie Barnes, Robert Coote, Isobel Elsom, Basil Rathbone
  • The House at Pooh Corner, 1928
    - Several film adaptations including Winnie-the Pooh, TV series 1952, prod. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC); The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh, 1977, prod. Walt Disney Productions; Pooh's Grand Adventure: The Search for Christopher Robin, 1997, prod. Walt Disney Television Animation; The Book of Pooh, TV series 2000,  prod. Disney Channel, Shadow Projects: Piglet's Big Movie, 2003, prod. Walt Disney Pictures; Winnie the Pooh, 2011, prod. Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios 
    - Nalle Puh rakentaa talon (suom. Annikki Saarikivi, 1949; Kersti Juva, 1977)
  • The Ascent of Man, 1928
  • Gentleman Unknown, 1928 (play)
  • Let's All Talk About Gerard, 1928 (play)
  • The Fourth Wall: A Detective Story in Three Acts, 1928 (first performed 29 February 1928; as The Perfect Alibi, 1929) - films: TV drama 1949, in Philco Television Playhouse, starring Bert Lytell, Frances Reid and D.A. Clarke-Smith; TV drama 1960, in The Chevy Mystery Show, starring Janet Blair and Vincent Price
  • Michael and Mary: A Play in Three Acts, 1929
    - Films: 1931, dir. Victor Saville, starring Herbert Marshall, Edna Best and Frank Lawton; TV drama 1949, in Theatre of Romance, dir. Robert Stevens, starring Jean Gillespie and Jack Manning; TV drama 1950, in Kraft Television Theatre, starring Peter Fernandez, Felicia Montealegre and John Newland; TV drama 1952, in Kraft Television Theatre, starring Maria Riva; TV drama 1952, in BBC Sunday-Night Theatre; TV drama 1956, in Lux Video Theatre, starring Maureen O'Sullivan; TV drama 1957, in Armchair Theatre, starring Dorothy Alison and Robert Urtquhart
  • By Way of Introduction, 1929 (prefaces, reviews and essays)
  • Toad of Toad Hall, 1929 (adaptation of the story The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame, music by H. Fraser-Simson)
    - TV movie 1946, prod. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), starring Julia Braddock, Kenneth More and Jack Newmark
  • The Christopher Robin Story Book, 1929
  • The Secret and Other Stories, 1929
  • Those Were the Days, 1929
  • Michael and Mary, 1930
  • When I Was Very Young, 1930 (autobiography, illustrated by E.H. Shephard)
  • Birds of Prey (The Perfect Alibi), 1930 (screenplay)
    - Film 1930, dir. Basil Dean, starring Robert Loraine, Warwick Ward and Frank Lawton
  • Two People 1931
  • The Perfect Alibi, 1932
  • The Christopher Robin Verses, 1932
  • They Don't Mean Any Harm, 1932 (play: a.k.a. Other People's Lives)
  • Four Plays, 1932 (contains Michael and Mary; To Meet the Prince; The Perfect Alibu, Portrait of Gentleman in Slippers)
  • Four Days' Wonder, 1933
    - Film 1936, dir. Sidney Salkow, starring Jeanne Dante, Kenneth Howell and Martha Sleeper
  • Other People's Lives: A Play in Three Acts, 1933
  • A.A. Milne, 1933
  • Peace With Honour: An Enquiry into War Convention, 1934
  • More Plays, 1935 (contains The Ivory Door; The Fourth Wall, Other People's Lives)
  • Miss Elizabeth Bennet, 1936 (adaptation of the novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, prod. 1938)
  • Sarah Simple: A Comedy in Three Acts, 1937
    - TV movie 1949, starring Georgina Cookson, William Fox, Joan Haythorne, Fulton Mackay, Frederick Piper, Janette Richer 
  • It's Too Late Now: The Autobiography of a Writer, 1938 (autobiography)
  • Behind the Lines, 1940 (verse)
  • War With Honour, 1940 (Macmillan War pamphlets)
  • War Aims Unlimited, 1941 (pamphlet)
  • The Ugly Duckling: A Play in One Act, 1941
    - Films: TV drama 1960, in General Electric Theatre, starring Oskar Homolka, Linda Watkins and Joanna Barnes; Ruma ankanpoikanen, in Teatterituokio, starring Pentti Viljanen, Rauha Rentola, Eira Jauckens, Martti Järvinen, Aarre Karén, Maija Karhi, Taneli Rinne   
  • One Year's Time, 1942
  • Chloe Marr, 1946
  • Going Abroad?, 1947 (pamphlet on travel)
  • The Norman Church, 1948
  • Books for Children, 1948
  • Birthday Party, and Other Stories, 1948
  • The Table Near the Band, and Other Stories, 1950 (contains A table near the band; The prettiest girl in the room; A man greatly beloved; The rise and fall of Mortimer Scrivens; Christmas party; The three dreams of Mr. Findlater; The river; Murder at eleven; A rattling good yarn; Portrait of Lydia; The Wibberly touch; Before the flood; The balcony)
    - Films: Portrait of Lydia, TV drama 1950, in Nash Airflyte Theatre, starring William Gaxton, Mary Beth Hughes and David Niven; Portrait of Lydia, TV drama 1954, in The Ford Television Theatre, starring Donna Reed, Nan Boardman, Jonathan Hale and Robert Horton; A Man Greatly Loved, TV drama 1957, in Alfred  Hitchcock  Presents, starring Cedric Hardwicke and Evelyn Rudie;  The Three Dreams of Mr. Findlater, TV drama 1957, in Alfred Hitchcock Presents, starring John Williams and Barbara Baxley
  • Before the Flood: A Play in One Act, 1951
  • Year In, Year Out, 1952 (monthly calendar of reminiscences, sketches and essays, illustrated by E.H. Shepard)
  • The King's Breakfast, 1953
    - Kuninkaan aamiainen: A. A. Milnen kauneimpia runoja (suom. Eila Kivikk’aho, 1987)
  • Prince Rabbit and The Princess Who Could Not Laugh, 1966
  • Christopher Robin's Book, 1969 (ed.  Rosemary Garland)
    - Risto Reippaan kirja (2. p., suom. Leena Sneck)
  • Winnie-the-Pooh, 1973 (special edition,  illustrated by E. H. Shepard)
  • The World of Christopher Robin, 1988 (illustrated by Ernest H. Shepard)
  • Winnie-the-Pooh: The Complete Collection of Stories and Poems, 1994 (illustrated by E.H. Shepard)
    - Nalle Puh: kootut kertomukset ja runot (suom. 1997)
  • There's Always Pooh and Me: Wherever I Am, There's Always Pooh: a Collection of Poems, 2002 (illustrated by Ernest H. Shepard)
  • The Sunny Side: short Stories and Poems for Proper Grown-ups, 2006 (illustrations by Anna Torborg)
  • Happy Half-hours: Selected Writings of A. A. Milne, 2020 (introduced by Frank Cottrell-Boyce)

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