In Association with

Choose another writer in this calendar:

by name:

by birthday from the calendar.

Credits and feedback

for Books and Writers
by Bamber Gascoigne

Albert Camus (1913-1960)


French novelist, essayist and playwright, who received the 1957 Nobel Prize for literature. In the 1940s, Albert Camus was closely linked to his fellow existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre, but he broke with him over Sartre's support of Stalinist policies. Camus died at the age of forty-six in a car accident near Sens, France. Among his best-known novels are L'Étranger (1942, The Stranger) and La Peste (1947, The Plague).

"Mother died today. Or, maybe, yesterday; I can't be sure. The telegram from the Home says: YOUR MOTHER PASSED AWAY. FUNERAL TOMORROW. DEEP SYMPATHY. Which leaves the matter doubtful; it could have been yesterday." (in The Stranger by Albert Camus, translated from the French by Stuart Gilbert, Vintage Books, 1946, p. 4)

Albert Camus was born in Mondovi, Algeria, into a working-class family. Camus's mother, Catherine Hélène Sintés, was an illiterate cleaning woman. She came from a family of Spanish origin. Lucien Auguste Camus, his father, was an itinerant agricultural laborer. He died of his wounds in 1914 after the Battle of the Marne – Camus was less than a year old at that time. His body was never sent to Algeria. During the war, Catherine Hélène worked in a factory. She was partly deaf, due to a stroke that permanently impaired her speech, but she was able to read lips. In their home "things had no names", as Camus later recalled. "Only half of her was in this world while the other was already foreign to her. This bustling, chattering old lady had been reduced to silence and immobility. Alone day after day, illiterate, not very sensitive, her whole life was reduced to God." ('The Wrong Side and the Right Side', in Personal Writings, translated from the French by Ellen Conroy and Justin O'Brien, with a foreword by Alice Kaplan, Penguin Books, 2020, p. 17)

Growing up in poverty in Algiers shaped much of Camus' world-view and had a profound influence on his writings. In 1923 Camus won a scholarship to the lycée in Algiers, where he studied from 1924 to 1932. Incipient tuberculosis put an end to his athletic activities. The disease was to trouble Camus for the rest of his life. Between the years 1935 and 1939 Camus held various jobs in Algiers. He also joined the Communist Party, but his interest in the works of Marx and Engels was rather superficial. More important writers in his circle were André Malraux and André Gide. As the Secretary General of the Algerian Cultural Center he devised and supervised a number of programs. In 1936 he lectured on the short-lived Popular Front, formed in France in 1934 as an instument against the fascist threat from Germany. At that time the anti-Semitic and pro-fascist far Right  was very active in Algeria.

In 1936 Camus received his diplôme d'étudies supérieures from the University of Algiers in philosophy. To recover his health he made his first visit to Europe. Camus' first book, L'Envers et l'Endroit (1937, The Wrong Side and the Right Side), was a collection of essays, which he wrote at the age of twenty-two. Camus dedicated it to his philosophy teacher, Jean Grenier. The philosopher Brice Parain maintained that the little book contained Camus' best work, although the author himself considered the form of his writings clumsy.

By this time Camus' reputation in Algeria as a leading writer was growing. He was also active in theater. In 1938 Camus moved to France. Next year he divorced his first wife, Simone Hié, who was a morphine addict. From 1938 to 1940 Camus worked for the Alger-Républicain, reviewing among others Sartre's books, and in 1940 for Paris-Soir. In 1940 he married Francine Faure, a pianist and mathematician. When the Allied landed in North Africa in 1942, Camus was convalescing at Le Panier on a farm from a recurrence of his tuberculosis. Francine had returned to her teaching post in Algeria. Camus, who wrote in his journal of celibacy and deprivation, was cut him off from his wife until the end of the war.

During WW II Camus was member of the French resistance. He made biweekly trips for treatment in nearby Saint-Étienne, which was a center of Resistace activity, too. From 1943 he worked as a reader and editor of Espoir series at Gallimard publisher. Camus met Sartre and Beauvoir in Paris at the opening performance of Les Mouches in 1943; they talked about books. Sartre had given his works good reviews in the Alger Républicain. With Sartre he founded the left-wing Resistance newspaper Combat, serving as its editor. However, it was Beauvoir who authored Sartre's first Combat articles. She had hoped to have an affair with Camus, who fell  in love with  Arthur Koestler's partner Mamaine and Koestler had a one-night stand with Beauvoir.

Camu's second novel, L'Étranger (The Stranger), which he had begun in Algeria before the war, appeared in 1942. It has been considered one of the greatest of all hard-boiled novels. Camus admired the American tough novel and wrote in The Rebel (1951): "It does not choose feelings or passions to give a detailed description of, such as we find in classic French novels. It rejects analysis and the search for a fundamental psychological motive that could explain and recapitulate the behavior of a character. . . . This technique is only called realistic, thanks to a misapprehension. In addition to the fact that realism in art is, as we shall see, an incomprehensible idea, it is perfeftly obvious that this fictitious world is not attempting a reproduction, pure and simple, of reality, but the most arbitrary form of stylization." (Ibid., translated by Anthony Bower, with a foreword by Sir Herbert Read, Penguin Books, 1951, p. 230)

The story of The Stranger is narrated by a doomed character, Mersault, and is set between two deaths, his mother's and his own. Mersault is a clerk, who seems to have no feelings and spends afternoons in lovemaking and empty nights in the cinema. Like Dostoevsky's Raskolnikov from Crime and Punishment (1866), he reaches self-knowledge by committing a crime – he shoots a nameless Arab on the beach without explicit reason and motivation – it was hot, the Arab had earlier terrorized him and his friend Raymond, and he had an headache. (Kamel Daoud gives in his novel Meursault, contre-enquête (2014) the Arab a name: it is Moussa, in the English translation The Meursault Investigation Musa.) Mersault is condemned to die as much for his refusal to accept the standards of social behavior as for the crime itself. "The absurd man will not commit suicide; he wants to live, without relinquishing any of his certainty, without a future, without hope, without illusions, and without resignation either. He stares at death with passionate attention and this fascination liberates him. He experiences the "divine irresponsibility" of the condemned man." ('Camus' The Outsider', in Literary and Philosophical Essays by Jean-Paul Sartre, translated from the French by Annette Michelson, Criterion Books, 1955, p. 27) Camus himself argued that there were few points of contact between his notion of the Absurd and Sartrean existentialism. Camus once famously suggested that Mersault is "the only Christ that we deserve". 

In the cell Mersault faces the reality for the first time, and his consciousness awakens. "It was as if that great rush of anger had washed me clean, emptied me of hope, and gazing up at the dark sky spangled with its signs and stars, for the first time, the first, I laid my heart open to the benign indifference of the universe." (Ibid., pp. 74-75) Luchino Visconti's film version from 1967 meticulously reconstructed an Algiers street so that it looked exactly as it had during 1938-39, when the story takes place. But the 43-year-old Marcello Mastroianni, playing 30-year-old Mersault, was considered too old, although otherwise his performance was praised.

The racial foundation of the author's fiction has caused a lot of controversy. It has been argued that in L'Étranger the nameless Arab is the real Outsider, "the Foreigner whose voice and representation are effectively erased both by Mersault's act and by the colonial judical system." (Postcolonial Encounters in International Relations: The Politics of Transgression in the Maghreb by Alina Sajed, 2013, p. 127) The colonial Arab population of North Africa dId not play a significant role in Camus' stories. This side of his oeuvre was mostly overlooked until 1970, when the Irish writer and politician Conor Cruise O'Brien published his study Albert Camus of Europe and Africa. Edward Said has argued that O'Brien did not go far enough in his criticism: "Having shrewedly and even mercilessly exposed the connections between Camus's most famous novels and the colonial situation in Algeria, O'Brien lets him off the hook." (Culture and Imperialism by Edward Said, 1993, p. 209)

Camus' philosophical essay Le Mythe de Sisyphe (1942, The Myth of Sisyphos) starts with the famous statement: "There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy. And the rest—whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories—comes afterwards." (The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays, translated from the French by Justin O'Brien, Vintage Books, 1955, p. 3) Camus compares the absurdity of the existence of humanity to the labours of the mythical character Sisyphus, who was condemned through all eternity to push a boulder to the top of a hill and watch helplessly as it rolled down again. Camus takes the nonexistence of God granted and finds meaning in the struggle itself.

"A novel is never anything but a philosophy put into images. And in a good novel, all the philosophy has passed into the images," Camus said in 1938 his review of Jean-Paul Sartre's Nausea. (Camus' Literary Ethics: Between Form and Content by Grace Whistler, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 28) Although Camus admired Sartre's gift's as a novelist, he did not find Sartre's two sides, philosophy and storytelling, both in balance. In an essay on Herman Melville – Melville's Billy Budd was one of Camu's favorite books – he said that, "In Kafka the reality which he describes is created by the symbol, the fact stems from the image, whereas in Melville the symbol emerges from reality, the image is born of what we see with our own eyes. This is why Melville never cut himself off from flesh or nature, which are barely perceptible in Kafka's work." (Selected Essays and Notebooks by Albert Camus, edited and translated by Philip Thody, Penguin Books, 1984, p. 181) Camus thought highly of William Faulkner, writing in the programme note to his own adaptation of  Faulkner's Requiem for a Nun: "His characters belong to our own day, and yet they confront the same destiny which crushed Electra or Orestes. Only a great artist could thus attempt to introduce the great language of pain and humiliation into our apartments." (Ibid., p. 183) The play, entitled Requiem pour une nonne was produced at the Théâtre des Mathurins-Marcel Herrand in September 1956. 

Camus did not take his succes well while Sartre enjoyed his celebrity in the postwar France. He spent some time in New York in 1946, and was both irritated and seduced by the city. In 1947 Camus resigned from Combat and published in the same year his third novel, The Plague, an allegory of the Nazi occupation of France. The Algerian city of Oran is abruptly forced to live within narrow boundaries under a terror – death is loose on the streets. In the besieged town some people try to act morally, some are cowards, some lovers. "Nonetheless, he knew that the tale he had to tell could be one of a final victory. It could only be the record of what had had to be done, and what assuredly would have to be done again in the never-ending fight against terror and its relentless onslaughts, despite their personal afflictions, by all who, while unable to be saints but refusing to bow down to pestilences, strive their utmost to be healers." (Ibid., translated by Stuart Gilbert, Vintage Books, 1972, p. 287)

The Algerian War had a huge impact on French society, enflaming and radicalizing both the Left and the Right. Horrified by the bloodshed, Camus condemned all violence, and found himself between hostile camps; he both  supported equal political rights for Arab citizens, which made him an isolated figure both in France and Algiers, and rejected Algerian independence: "a purely Arab Algeria could not achieve that economic independence without which political independence is nothing but an illusion." ('Writing Against, Writing With: The Case of Algerian Literature' by Amina Azza-Bekkat, in Chewing Over the West: Occidental Narratives in Non-Western Readings, edited by Doris Jedamski, 2009, p. 118)

Before his break with Sartre, who had decided to side with Communism, Camus wrote L'Homme Révolté (1951, Man in Revolt), which explores the theories and forms of humanity's revolt against authority. The book was criticized in Sartre's Les Temps modernes by a junior member of the journal, Francis Jeanson. Camus was offended and wrote a seventeen-page reply to "M. Le Directeur" (To the Editor), never once mentioning Jeanson. Sartre responded with a scornful letter: "You do us the honor of contributing to this issue of Les Temps modernes, but you bring a portable pedestal with you." (Camus, a Romance by Elizabeth Hawes, Grove Press, 2009, p.171)

Following Sartre's attack Camus stayed away from places where he used to see his former friend. Moreover, he saw the success of Beauvor's novel The Mandarins as directed against him. From 1955 to 1956 Camus worked as a journalist for L'Express. Among his major works from the late-1950s is La Chute  (1956, The Fall), an ironic novel in which the penitent judge Jean-Baptiste Clamence confesses his own moral crimes to a strager in an Amsterdam bar. Jean-Baptiste reveals his hypocrisy, but at the same time his monologue becomes an attack on modern man.

When Camus heard, that he had won the Nobel Prize for Literature, he stated publicly that he would have voted for Malraux. Taking a very unpopular stand during the Algerian war, Camus claimed that there "has never yet been an Algerian nation" and the French deserved to have a voice in Algerian society. Camus warned that a break with France would be fatal. While expressing his attachment for his "Arab brothers" he exhibited an attitude of disdain and distrust towards all that is Arab, Muslim, and Oriental. Camus' efforts to negotiate a civilian truce in war-torn Algeria were fruitless and he fell silent.

At the time of his death, Camus was planning to direct a theater company of his own and to write a major novel about growing up in Algeria. Several of the short stories in L'Exil et le Royaume  (1957) were set in Algeria's coastal towns and inhospitale sands. The unfinished novel La Mort heureuse (1970) was written in 1936-38. It presented the young Camus, or Patrice Mersault, seeking his happiness from Prague to his hometown in Algiers, announcing towards the end of the book: "What matters—all that matters, really—is the will to happiness, a kind of enormous, ever-present consciousness. The rest—women, art, success—is nothing but excuses. A canvas waiting for our embroideries." (Ibid., translated from the French by Richard Howard, afterword and notes by Jean Sarocchi, Vintage International, 1995, pp. 128-129)

Le Premier Homme (1994), the story of Jacques Cormery, charted the history of Camus's family and his lycée years. The manuscript was found in the car, a Facel Vega, in which he died on January 4, 1960, in the passenger seat. Camus was thrown from the car. He died instantly of a broken neck. Pedestrians who witnessed the incident told that the car suddenly zigzagged off the road, crashed into a plane tree, and then smashed into a second tree. The driver, Michel Gallimard, died five days later of a brain hemorrhage. "Was I driving?" he asked. (The Lady with the Borzoi: Blanche Knopf, Literary Tastemaker Extraordinaire by Laura Claridge, 2016, p. 308) A family dog called Floc, a Skye terrier, ran into the forest and was never found.  The Italian author Giovanni Catelli claimed in 2011 in an article written for the newspaper Corriere della Sera, that it was not a simple accident, but Camus was assassinated by KGB for his anti-Soviet views.

Camus was buried in the Provençal village of Lourmarin, in the South of France, where he had spent the last years of his life. With the approach of the fiftieth anniversary of his death in 2010, President Nicolas Sarkozy suggested that the author's remains to be moved to the Pantheon. Camus' daughter Catherine, the executor of her father's estate, thought that the "Pantheonization" would crown his lifelong desire to speak for those who had no voice.

For further reading: Camus and Fanon on the Algerian Question: An Ethics of Rebellion by Pedro Tabensky (2023); L'enfance d'Albert Camus by Aurélie Palud (2023); Camus's The Plague: Philosophical Perspectives, edited by Peg Brand Weiser (2023); Albert Camus and the Human Crisis by Robert E. Meagher (2021); Mon cher Albert: lettre à Camus by Martine Mathieu-Job (2021); The Prophets of Nihilism: Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, and Camus by Sean D. Illing (2017); Looking for The stranger: Albert Camus and the Life of a Literary Classic by Alice Kaplan (2016); A Life Worth Living: Albert Camus and the Quest for Meaning by Robert Zaretsky (2013); Camus & Sartre: The Story of a Friendship and the Quarrel That Ended It by Ronald Aronson (2004); Albert Camus in New York by Herbert R. Lottman(1997); Albert Camus: A Life by Oliver Todd (1997); Camus' "L'Étranger": Fifty Years On, edited by Adele King (1992; Albert Camus by Philip H. Rhein (1989); Camus: A Critical Study of His Life and Work by Patrick McCarthy (1982); The Theater of Albert Camus by E. Freeman (1971); The Sea and the Prison by R. Quillot (1970); A Pagan Hero: An Interpretation of Mersault in Camus' "The Stranger" by Robert Champigny (1969); Albert Camus: The Artist in the Arena by Emmett Parker (1965); Albert Camus, 1913-1969: A Biographical Study by Philip Thody (1961) - External link: The Albert Camus Society UK

Selected bibliography:

  • Révolte dans les Asturies, 1936 (with others)
  • Métaphysique chrétienne et Néoplatonisme, 1936 - Christian Metaphysics and Neoplatonism (translated with a preface and introduction by Ronald D. Srigley; epilogue by Rémi Brague, 2015)
  • L'Envers at l'endroit, 1937 - The Wrong Side and the Right Side (tr. 1968) - Esseitä: valikoima (suom. Leena Löfstedt, 1962)
  • Noces, 1939 - Nuptials (tr. 1968)
  • L'Étranger, 1942 - The Outsider (translated by Stuart Gilbert, 1946) / The Stranger (translated by Joseph Laredo, 1982; Matthew Ward, 1988) / The Outsider (translated by Sandra Smith, 2012) - Sivullinen (suom. Kalle Salo, 1947) - films: Lo straniero, 1967, dir. by Luchino Visconti, starring Marcello Mastroianni, Anna Karina, Bernard Blier, Georges Wilson; Yazgi, 2001, dir. by Zeki Demirkubuz, starring Serdar Orcin, Zeynep Torkus and Engin Günaydin
  • Le Mythe de Sisyphe, 1942 - The Myth of Sisyphos and Other Essays (translated by Justin O'Brien, 1955) - Esseitä (valikoima, suom. Leena Löfstedt, 1962); Kapinoiva ihminen: esseitä ja katkelmia (valikoima, suom. Ulla-Kaarina Jokinen ja Maija Lehtonen, 1971)
  • Le malentendu, 1944 (play, prod. 1944) - Cross Purposes (with Caligula, tr. 1947) - Väärinkäsitys (suom. Leo Kontula, 1992)
  • L'Existence, 1945
  • Lettres à un ami allemand, 1945 - Letters to a German Friend (tr. 1961)
  • Caligula, 1945 (play, prod. 1945) - Caligula (with Cross Purposes, tr. 1947) / Caligula and Three Other Plays (translated by S. Gilbert and others, 1958) / Caligula; A Drama in Two Acts (adapted from the French by Justin O'Brien) - Caligula (suom. Esko Elstelä, 1980)
  • La Peste, 1947 - The Plague (translated by Stuart Gilbert, 1948; Robin Buss, 2001) - Rutto (suom. Juha Mannerkorpi, 1948) - film: La Peste, 1992, dir. by Luis Puenzo, starring William Hurt, Sandine Bonnaire, Jean-Marc Barr, Robert Duvall, Raul Julia, Jorge Luz, Victoria Tennant, Atilio Veronelli
  • L'état de siège, 1948 (play, prod. 1948) - State of Siege (in Caligula and Three Other Plays, translated by S. Gilbert and others, 1958)
  • Les Justes, 1950 (play, prod. 1949) - The Just Assassins (in Caligula and Three Other Plays, translated by S. Gilbert and others, 1958) / The Just (translated by Henry Jones) - Oikeamieliset (suom. Reita Lounatvuori, 2001)
  • Le Minotaure; ou, La Halte d'Oran, 1950
  • Actuelles I, 1950 - Kapinoiva ihminen: esseitä ja katkelmia (valikoima, suom. Ulla-Kaarina Jokinen ja Maija Lehtonen, 1971)
  • L'Homme révolté, 1951 - The Rebel: An Essay on Man in Revolt (translated  by Anthony Bower, 1954) - Kapinoiva ihminen (suom. Ulla-Kaarina Jokinen, Maija Lehtonen, 1971)
  • Le dernière flur / James Thurber, 1952 (translator)
  • La Dévotion à la croix, 1953 (play, prod. 1953, from a play by Calderón)
  • Les Esprits, 1953 (play, prod. 1953, from a work by Pierre de Larivey)
  • Actuelles II, 1953
  • L'Été, 1954 - Summer (tr. 1968; Philip Thody, 1995) - Esseitä (suom. Leena Löfstedt, 1962)
  • Un Cas intéressant, 1955 (play, prod. 1955, from a work by Dino Buzzati)
  • Requiem pour une nonne, 1956
  • La Chute, 1956 - The Fall (translated by Justin O'Brien, 1956) - Putoaminen (suom. Maijaliisa Auterinen, 1957)
  • Requiem pour une nonne, 1956 (play, prod. 1956, from a work by William Faulkner)
  • Le Chevalier d'Olmedo, 1957 (play, prod. 1957, from the play by Lope de Vega)
  • Réflexions sur la guillotine, 1957 (with Arthur Koestler, in Réflexions sur la peine capitale) - Reflections on the Guillotine (tr. 1960)
  • L'éxil et le royaume, 1957 - Exile and the Kingdom (translated by Justin O'Brien, 1958) / Exile and the Kingdom: Stories (translated and with an introduction by Carol Cosman; foreword by Orhan Pamuk, 2007) - Maanpako ja Valtakunta (suom. Maija Lehtonen, 1960)
  • Actuelles III, Chroniques algériennes, 1958 - Algerian Chronicles (translated by Arthur Goldhammer, with an introduction by Alice Kaplan, 2013) 
  • Discours de Suède, 1958 - Speech of Acceptance upon the Award of the Nobel Prize for Literature (tr. 1958)
  • Les possédés, 1959 (play, prod. 1959, from a novel by Dostoevsky) - The Possessed: A Play in Three Parts (translated by Justin O'Brien, 1960)
  • Resistance, Rebellion, and Death, 1961 (selection, translated by Justin O’Brien)
  • Méditation sur le théâtre et la vie, 1961
  • Carnets, mai 1935-fevrier 1942, 1962 - Notebooks 1935-1942 (translated by Philip Thody, 1963)
  • Théâtre, récits, nouvelles; Essais, 1962-65 (2 vols., edited by Roger Quillot)
  • Carnets, janvier 1942-mars 1951, 1964 - Notebooks 1942-1951 (translated by Justin O'Brien, 1965)
  • Caligula and Three Other Plays, 1958 (translated by Justin O’Brien)
  • Carnets: Janvier 1942-mars 1951, 1964 - Notebooks 1942-1951 (tr. 1970)
  • Essais, 1965
  • Lyrical and Critical Essays, 1968 (edited by Philip Thody, translated by Ellen Kennedy)
  • Le Combat d'Albert Camus, 1970 (edited by Norman Stokle)
  • Selected Essays and Notebooks, 1970 (edited and translated by Philip Thody)
  • La Mort heureuse, 1970 - A Happy Death (translated by Richard Howard, 1973) - Onnellinen kuolema (suom. Elina Hytönen, 1972)
  • Le premier Camus. Suivi de Ecrits de jeunesse d'Albert Camus, 1973 - Youthful Writings of Albert Camus (translated by Ellen Conroy Kennedy, 1976)
  • Fragments d'un combat 1938-1940: Alger-Républican, Le Soir-Républicain, 1978 (edited by Jacqueline Lévi-Valensi and André Abbou)
  • Journaux de voyage, 1979 (edited by Roger Quillot) - American Journals (translated by Hugh Levick, 1990)
  • Correspondance 1932-1960, 1981 (with Jean Grenier, edited by Marguerite Dobrenn)
  • Oeuvres complètes, 1983 (9 vols.)
  • Carnets, mars 1951-décembre 1959, 1989 - Notebooks 1951-1959 (translated by Ryan Bloom, 2008)
  • Le Premier Homme, 1994 - The First Man (translated by David Hapgood, 1995) - Ensimmäinen ihminen (suom. Sirkka Suomi, 1995)
  • Correspondance 1939-1947, 2000 (with Pascal Pia, ed. by Yves Marc Ajchenbaum)
  • Camus à Combat: éditoriaux et articles d’Albert Camus, 1944-1947, 2002 - Camus at Combat: Writing 1944-1947 (translated by Arthur Goldhammer, 2007)
  • Chroniques algériennes, 1939-1958, 2002
    - Algerian Chronicles (translated by Arthur Goldhammer; with an introduction by Alice Kaplan, 2013)
  • Correspondence, 1932-1960 / Albert Camus & Jean Grenier, 2003 (with annotations by Marguerite Dobrenn; translated and with an introduction by Jan F. Rigaud)
  • Œuvres complètes, 2006-2008 (4 vols.; edited by Jacqueline Lévi-Valensi, et al.)   
  • Correspondance, 1946-1959 / Albert Camus, René Char, 2007 (édition établie, présentée et annotée par Franck Planeille)
  • Notebooks, 1951-1959, 2008 (translated from the French, with an introduction and afterword, by Ryan Bloom)
  • S'engager?: correspondance, 1946-1957 / Albert Camus, Michel Vinaver, 2012 (édition établie, présentée et annotée par Simon Chemama)
  • Correspondance, 1944-1958 / Albert Camus, Roger Martin du Gard, 2013 (édition établie, présentée et annotée par Claude Sicard)
  • Correspondance, 1945-1959 / Albert Camus, Louis Guilloux, 2013 (édition établie, présentée et annotée par Agnès Spiquel-Courdille)
  • Correspondance, 1941-1957 / Albert Camus, Francis Ponge, 2013 (édition établie, présentée et annotée par Jean-Marie Gleize)
  • Correspondance, 1941-1959: et autres textes / Albert Camus, André Malraux, 2016 (édition établié, présentée et annotée par Sophie Doudet)
  • Correspondance: 1944-1959 / Albert Camus, Maria Casarès, 2017 (texte établi par Béatrice Vaillant; avant-propos de Catherine Camus)
  • Conférences et discours, 1936-1958, 2017
    - Speaking Out: Lectures and Speeches, 1937-1958 (translated from the French and with a foreword by Quintin Hoare, 2022)
  • Personal Writings, 2020 (contains The Wrong Side and the Right Side (L'Envers et l'Endroit; Nuptials (Noces); Summer (L'Eté))
  • The Plague, 2022 (a new translation by Laura Marris)
  • Travels in the Americas: Notes and Impressions of a New World, 2023 (edited and with an introduction by Alice Kaplan; translated by Ryan Bloom; annotated by Alice Kaplan and Ryan Bloom)
  • Caligula and Three Other Plays, 2023 (Vintage International; a new translation by Ryan Bloom)

In Association with

Some rights reserved Petri Liukkonen (author) & Ari Pesonen. 2008-2024.

Creative Commons License
Authors' Calendar jonka tekijä on Petri Liukkonen on lisensoitu Creative Commons Nimeä-Epäkaupallinen-Ei muutettuja teoksia 1.0 Suomi (Finland) lisenssillä.
May be used for non-commercial purposes. The author must be mentioned. The text may not be altered in any way (e.g. by translation). Click on the logo above for information.