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by Bamber Gascoigne

Andrew Garve (1908-2001) - pseudonym for Paul Winterton, also wrote as Roger Bax and Paul Somers


Prolific English short story and mystery writer, who published over 40 thrillers. Often Winterton's heroes are ordinary persons, who are thrown into dangerous situations and during the story they prove to be extraordinary courageous and persistent. Winterton used three pseudonyms, Roger Bax, Paul Sommers, and Andrew Garve, which he adopted in 1950. Winterton's best known books include Murder in Moscow (1951) and A Hero for Leanda (1959).

"He braced himself as he rang the bell. He loathed this part of his job, as every policeman did, and years of experience had failed to inure him to it. Or even to tell him what to expect. The sudden news of death could bring collapse and prostration; tears and sobs; hysteria; petrified shock; withdrawal and silence; volubility - one never knew, for there was no common pattern of behaviour. What Burns did know, as a compassionate man, was that it was hard to be the bearer of such tidings..." (from The Case of Robert Quarry, 1972)

Andrew Garve was born Paul Winterton in Leicester, the son of Ethel Clarke and George Ernest Winterton. His father was a journalist, and for a time the Labour Member of Parliament for Loughborough. He did not renew his seat. Paul himself stood, unsuccessfully, for Canterbury in the 1931 election.

Paul Winterton was educated at the London School of Economics and at the London University, receiving his B.Sc. in 1928. After graduation, he went to Russia on the Dyke Acland Travelling Scholarship. "In the main I was  prepared for anything, and my bias of ingrained suspicion was perhaps no bad prelude to the kind of adventure I had undertaken," Winterton said in the account of his journey, A Student in Russia (1931). "People that I knew well and respected had expressed fears as to my safety and some, I am certain, shook hands with me before I left in the firm conviction that thet would never see me again." In 1929, Winterton became a staff member of The Economist. From 1933 to 1946, he worked as a reporter, lead writer, and foreign correspondent for the London News Chronicle.

During World War II (1942-45), Winterton's post was in Moscow - the experience gave him much material for his novels and articles on the Soviet Union. His secretary-interpreter was Tania Sofiano, who also helped the American war correspondent Quentin Reynolds. Because the BBC did not have a regular broadcaster stationed in the city, it relied on such journalists as Winterton, the Australian John Fisher, and the Russian-born British war correspondent and writer Alexander Werth, who worked for the Sunday Times.

In 1944, Winterton complained in a letter to his employers, that "our only news source is the Soviet press, and this is colorless, vague and always out of date." Moreover, the Soviet authorities rarely allowed reporters to visit areas near the front line. The Russian journalist and novelist Ilya Ehrenburg, whom Winterton met, christallized the Soviet stand saying bluntly, that in wartime, every objective reporter should be shot.

In spite of the censorship, Winterton was one of those correspondents, who reported on Nazi atrocities at an early stage. He had accompanied the Red Army into the deserted Majdanek Nazi Extermination Camp near Lubin in Poland. "Here is the most horrible story I shall ever have to tell you," Winterton said in his broadcast. A shortened version of the shocking and detailed report was transmitted in August 1944, but only on the BBC's North American service. BBC thought Winterton was recirculating Societ propaganda (International Radio Journalism: History, Theory and Practice by Tim Crook, 1998, pp. 200-201). In the same month, News Chronicle published Winterton's article 'Biggest Murder Case in History.' Winterton was one of the first reporters, who prompted a call for a special war crimes commission.

After visiting Tallin, Estonia, retaken by the Red Army, Winterton wrote: "I discovered that the bulk of the people of Tallin were extremely hostile to the Soviet Union, had no desire to be part of it, feared that the Russians would deport large number of them into the interior of Russia as was done in 1940, and had been if anything rather relieved by the German occupation. I tried to write a part of this, but of course the censor stopped it all – even though I put the whole thing in an objective setting and emphasised the strategic importance of the Baltic States to Russia's security." (in Stalin's Holy War: Religion, Nationalism, and Alliance Politics, 1941-1945 by Steven Merritt Miner, 2003, p. 290) Inquest on an Ally (1948), about post-war Soviet policy, made it clear to the readers, that the Soviets are unreliable and untrustworthy. "There are no experts in the Soviet Union," he once stated, "there are only varying degrees of ignorance." (The Manassas Journal, November 17, 1949)

Since the late 1940s, Winterton focused only on fiction. His first crime novel, Death Beneath Jerusalem(1938), set in Palestine, was published by Nelson under the pseudonym Roger Bax. Noteworthy, the story featured a hero called Philip Garve. It was followed by five other Bax books; from Disposing of Henry (1946) they were published by Hutchinson. In Blueprint for Murder (1948) and A Grave Case of Murder (1951) the protagonist was Inspector James. These books represented the author's expertness in the genre of pure detection novel.  Winterton's stories commonly, if not always, revolved around crimes, but they were usually not detective novels but thrillers or adventure novels. 

No Tears for Hilda (1950), about the death of an obnoxious wife, and No Mask for Murder (1950), in which the hero was an expert on lepsosy, were Winterton's first novels written as Andrew Garve. He had also switched from Hutchinson to Collins. After 1951, most of Winterton's fiction came out under this pen name, though he wrote several novels as Paul Somers.

Winterton died on January 8, 2001, in a nursing home in the county of Surrey, at the age of 92. His last novel, Counterstroke (1978), told a story of kidnapping, terrorists, and an unemployed actor named Bob Farran, who impersonates the jailed leader of the terrorists. By the time of his death, Winterton's books were out of print. He was married twice, first to Margaret Colegrave, and then to Audrey K. Hopkin.

Winterton used often his own experiences to give authenticity for his works. He traveled widely, which is seen in the diversity of the settings: English villages, the Scilly Isles, Ireland, France, Australia (the scene of Boomerang, 1969), Russia, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland, Africa and the Indian Ocean. His works were also translated into several languages and adapted for radio and television in Britain and the United States. In a series of four novels - Beginner's Luck (1958), filmed as The Desperatew Man (1959), Operation Piracy (1958), The Shivering Mountain (1959), and The Broken Jigsaw (1961) - he depicted the exploits of a young reporter who competes with a more experienced woman journalist on a rival paper. His knowledge of Russians is seen in the stories Murder in Moscow, The Ashes of Loda (1965), The Late Bill Smith (1971). Winterton once remarked, that "there are no experts on Russia – only varying degrees of ignorance." The Ascent of D-13 (1969) was an account of mountain climbing on the Turkish-Russian border, where two men fight against hazards of blizzard and avalanche in order to find and destroy a secret weapon.

The Russian-based thriller, Came the Dawn (1949), was filmed with Clark Gable and Gene Tierney under the title Never Let Me Go (1953). Delmer Daves, the director, was a specialist of dramas and action films. In this romantic melodrama, an American correspondent (Gable) marries after WW II a Russian ballerina Marya Lamarkina (Tierney), but is forced to leave her behind in Moscow, when he becomes persona non grata with the Soviet authorities. When a special performance of Swan Lake is arranged in Tallin, Gable seizes the opportunity to smuggle Tierney out of Russia. The dancer and choreographer stated that had Hollywood's Gene Tierney not chosen a film career she might have been an outstanding ballerina. (Dying Swans and Madmen: Ballet, the Body, and Narrative Cinema by Adrienne L. McLean, 2008, p. 290)

Garve's The Megstone Plot (1956) served as the basis for the film A Touch of Larceny(1960), directed by Guy Hamilton and starring James Mason and  Vera Miles. The light comedy was about a naval commander, who disappears in the hope that he will be branded a traitor and can sue for libel, thus making some quick money. In the complicated scheme to defraud a newspaper, depicted more detailed in the novel, Winterton used again his own experiences as a journalist. "Romance, with a suspicion of chuckles, seems to have been the motive behind the script fashioned by Roger MacDougall," said the writer and critic A.H. Weiler (The New York Times, March 17, 1960). Perhaps the best scene is when Mason has shipwrecked himself on an uninhabitated island, sees a passing vesses, and murmurs, "Help, help!" while sipping champagne.

Winterton's short stories appeared in such periodicals as Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, Bestseller Mystery Magazine, and The Saint, and in several anthologies (A Choice of Murders, 1958; Best Detective Stories of the Year, ed. by Anthony Boucher, 1963; John Creasey's Mystery Bedide Book, 1969 and 1972, ed. by Herbert Harris, 1968; Ellery Queen's Mystery Parade, 1969; and Winter's Crimes 7, ed. by George Hardinge, 1975).

Several of Winterton's heroes are familiar with the sailing on the coastal waters or at the sea, as in the novels The Narrow Search (1957), in which a father kidnaps his daughter from his estranged wife and her new boyfriend, The File on Lester (1974), and A Hero For Leanda, written as Andrew Garve. The pseudonym's surname came from a small village in Scotland, at the eastern end of Loch Garve. In this novel, the protagonist is a former engineer, Mike Conway, who has left his regular work and bough a sailing boat. After losing it, he is penniless. He takes a dangerous work, sails to an isolated island on the Indian Ocean, and helps Alexander Kastellan, a leader of a freedom movement, to escape from it. Kastellan turns out to be a bad person, but Conway overcomes apparently insuperable odds, and wins the heart of the heroine, Leanda, by means of his navigational skills. Most of the story takes place aboard the small yacht.

Winterton was one of the founders of the Crime Writers's Association in 1953, and served its first joint secretary with Elizabeth Ferrars. The main force behing the founding of CWA, considered Great Britain's counterpart to the Mystery Writers of America, was the prolific writer John Creasey. He chaired the association until 1956.

Winterton's later novels include Home to Roost (1976), a psychological thriller, told by Walter Haines, a successful mystery writer. He has married the beautiful Laura, but after happy years the famous tv-star Max Ryland enters their life, and Laura leaves him. Ryland is stabbed to death. Walter confesses the murder, although he was at the time of the death in Portugal and another deceived husband appears with his confession. The Case of Robert Quarry (1972) is a crime story in which Detective Chief Superintendent Joseph Burns plans to retire, visit Lascaux and explore Provence, but then makes a start on the case of Robert Quarry, an industrialist has has been murdered. He works with a young, vigorous detective-sergeant Ryder; they complement each other like hand and glove. It looks as though Burn must hand the case over unsolved to his successor, until he starts a game of bluff and double bluff.

Series characters: Inspector James in Roger Bax stories, and Hugh Curtis in Paul Somers books. - For further reading:'Winterton, Paul,'  in  World Authors 1950-1970, ed. by John Wakeman (1975); Encyclopedia of Mystery and Detection, ed. by Chris Steinbrunner and Otto Penzler (1976); 'Garve, Andrew' by Mary Helen Becker, in Twentieth Century Mystery and Crime Writers, ed. by John M. Reilly (1985); 'Garve, Andrew,' in Encyclopedia Mysteriosa by William L. DeAndrea (1997); 'Garve, Andrew,' in The Encyclopedia of Murder and Mystery by Bruce F. Murphy (1999); 'Introduction' by John Higgins, in Andrew Garve and Soviet Russia: Paul Winterton's Early Writings about Russia and the Soviet Union, edited and with an introduction by John Higgins (2015) - See also: Hammond Innes, who depicted in his novels the sea and seamanship.

Selected works:

  • A Student in Russia, 1931
  • Russia - with Open Eyes, 1937
  • Mending Minds: The Truth about Our Mental Hospitals, 1938
  • Death Beneath Jerusalem, 1938 (as Roger Bax)
  • Red Escapade, 1940 (as Roger Bax)
  • Eye-Witness on the Soviet Warfront, 1943
  • Report on Russia, 1945
  • Disposing of Henry, 1946 (as Roger Bax)
  • Blueprint for Murder, 1948 (as Roger Bax, US title: The Trouble with Murder)
  • Inquest on an Ally, 1948 (on the foreign policy of the U.S.S.R. since the end of the Second World War)
  • Came the Dawn, 1949 (as Roger Bax, US title: If Two by Sea)
    - film: Never Let Me Go (1953), dir. by Delmer Daves, screenplay by Ronald Millar and George Froeschel, starring Clark Gable, Gene Tierney, Richard Haydn, Kenneth Moore. "Plot reeks of implausibility, but this is compensated by bold direction, nimble scripting and lively performances and there is suspense and action in good measure. As an added feature, there is an attractive ballet sequence in which Gene Tierney is partnered by Anton Dolin." (Variety Movie Guide 2000, ed. by Derek Elley, 2000)
  • No Tears for Hilda, 1950
  • No Mask for Murder, 1950 (US title: Fontego's Folly)
  • A Grave Case of Murder, 1951 (as Roger Bax)
  • Murder in Moscow, 1951 (US title: Murder Through the Looking Glass)
  • A Press of Suspects, 1951 (US title: By-Line for Murder)
    - Minä, Edgar Jessop (suom. Eero Ahmavaara, 1957)
  • A Hole in the Ground, 1952
  • The Cuckoo Line Affair, 1953
  • Death and the Sky Above, 1953
    - film: Two-Letter Alibi (1962), prod. Playpont, dir. by Robert Lynn, screenplay by Roger Marshall, starring Peter Williams, Petra Davies, Ursula Howells, Ronald Adam
  • The Riddle of Samson, 1954
    - Samsonin arvoitus (suom. Eero Ahmavaara, 1957)
  • The End of the Track, 1956
    - Polun pää (suom. Urpu Nuotio, 1963)
  • The Narrow Search, 1957
  • The Megstone Plot, 1957
    - film: A Touch of Larceny (1959), prod. Ivan Foxwell Productions, dir. by Guy Hamilton, screenplay Roger MacDougal, Guy Hamilton, Paul Winterton, Ivan Foxwell, starring James Mason, Vera Miles, George Sanders, Oliver Johnston
  • Beginner's Luck, 1958 (as Paul Somers)
    - film: The Desperate Man (1959), prod. Merton Park Studios, dir. by Peter Maxwell, screenplay by James Eastwood, Paul Somers, starring Jill Ireland, Conrad Phillips, William Hartnell, Charles Gray
  • Operation Piracy, 1958 (as Paul Somers)
  • A Hero for Leanda, 1959
    - Leandan sankari (suom. Eero Ahmavaara, 1960)
  • The Shivering Mountain, 1959 (as Paul Somers)
  • The Far Sands, 1960
  • The Golden Deed, 1960
    - TV series 1960 / Moment of Fear, prod. Revue Studios, sstarring Larry Blyden, Macdonald Carey and Olive Deering; Kareinaru houmonsha, TV film 1980, dir. Hideo Suzuki, screenplay by Akira Murao, starring Takanobu Hozumi, Isao Kimura and Rika Miura
  • The Broken Jigsaw, 1961 (as Paul Somers; reissued in 1963 as by Andrew Garve)
  • The House of Soldiers, 1961
  • Prisoner's Friend, 1962
  • The Sea Monks, 1963
  • Frame-Up, 1964
    - Kolmesta poikki (suom. Heidi Järvenpää, 1966)
  • The Ashes of Loda, 1965
  • Murderer's Fen, 1966 (US title: Hide and Go Seek)
  • A Very Quiet Place, 1967
  • The Long Short Cut, 1968
  • The Ascent of D-13, 1969
  • Boomerang, 1969
  • The Late Bill Smith, 1971
  • The Case of Robert Quarry , 1972
  • The File on Lester, 1974 (US title: The Lester Affair)
  • Home to Roost, 1976
    - Kumpi meistä (suom. Riitta Hakulinen, 1979)
  • Counterstroke, 1978
  • Andrew Garve and Soviet Russia: Paul Winterton's Early Writings about Russia and the Soviet Union, 2015 (edited and with an introduction by John Higgins)

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