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Yehuda Amichai (1924-2000)


Israeli poet, who also published short stories, novels, and plays. Amichai was among the first to compose poems in colloquial Israeli Hebrew. His language is gently ironic, sometimes passionate or straightforward, or even emotionally dry. Memories from childhood appear in Amichai's work as nostalgic glimpses into a world of peace and innocence: "Remember: even the departure to terrible battles / Passes by gardens and windows / And children playing, a dog barking." Many of his poems are addressed to Jerusalem. Amichai's own life was closely linked to the birth and battle for existence of the State of Israel. In 1982 he received the Israel Prize of Poetry, his country's highest honor.

If I forget thee, Jerusalem,
Then let my right be forgotten.
Let my right be forgotten, and my left remember.
Let my left remember, and your right close
And your mouth open near the gate.

(from 'If I Forget Thee, Jerusalem')

Yehuda Amichai was born in Würzburg, Germany, to a merchant family of Orthodox Jews. His ancestors had lived there in southern Germany since the Middle Ages. Amichai studied Hebrew from early childhood and received a religious education. After the Nazis came to power, his family emigrated to Palestine in 1935, and settled finally in Jerusalem. In an early poem he confessed: "And my parents' migration has not yet calmed in me. / My blood goes on shaking at its walls, / As the bowl after it is set down." His childhood love, daughter of a local rabbi, remained behind; she died in the Sobibor death camp in Poland in 1943. Her figure, Little Ruth', became the subject of some of his most intense poems.

During World War II Amichai served in the Jewish Brigade of the British Army. Later, during the War of Independence, he fought as a commando with the Haganah underground, and took part in some of the toughest battles in the Negev. He was also in active duty in the army in 1956 and 1973. These experiences mark many of his poems. In 'Tel Gath' he returned to his own past: "I brought my children to the mound / Where once I fought battles, / So they would understand the things I did do / And forgive me for the things I didn't do." In another poem, 'The U.N. Headquarters in the High Commissioner's House in Jerusalem', Amichai viewed bitterly the role of the international community in his country, which had become a playground of peace negotiators: "And their secretaries are lipsticked and laughing, / and their sturdy chauffeurs wait below, like horses in a stable, / and the trees that shade them have their roots in no-man's land / and the illusions are children who went out to find cyclamen in the field / and do not come back."

Amichai studied at the Hebrew University, and then earned his living by teaching the Bible and Hebrew literature in secondary schools. From January 1947 to April 1948, he had a love affair with Ruth Z., who left him to move to the United States. Amichai had started to write poetry in 1949. His first collection, Akhshav uva-yamim ha-aherim, came out in 1955. With his second collection, Be-merhak shete tikvot (1958), Amichai established himself as one of the major poets of the 'Palmach generation', writers who emerged out of Israeli's war for independence. It included such names as Nathan Zach (b. 1930), Dalia Ravikovitch, T. Carmi, and Dan Pagis. Despite Amichai's popularity, he was described by critics as heretical, even dangerous in the first two decades of Israeli statehood.

Much of Amichai's fiction is autobiographical. "My personal history has coincided with a larger history," he has said. "For me it's always been one and the same." His first novel, Lo me-ʻakhshaṿ lo mi-kan (1963, Not of This Time, Not of This Place) was about a young German Jew living in Israel after World War II and trying to understand the world which had created the Holocaust. His second novel, Mi yitneni malon (1971), was about an Israeli poet living in New York. It was published while Amichai was a visiting poet at an American college. In 1971 and 1976 he was a visiting professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and Dorot Visiting Fellowship (1983-84), and a visiting poet at New York University (1987).

In the background of Amichai's work is the biblical Hebrew, in which he incorporates colloquial expressions and language of the modern day world. Sometimes it follows the rhythms of biblical language. In 'National thoughts' Amichai wrote: "To speak, now, in this tired language, / Torn from its sleep in the Bible – / Blinded, it lurches from mouth to mouth – / The language which described God and the Miracles, / Says: / Motor car, bomb, God." Grief, unresolved. hidden rage, and irony are elements of 'The Smell of gasoline Ascends in My Nose', in which the army jet "makes peace in the heavens / upon us and upon all lovers in autumn".

Amichai's poems have often been recited on public occasions. Yitzhak Rabin read lines from his famous early work, 'God Has Pity on Kindergarten Children,' as part of his Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech. In the poem Amichai continues the title line with the words: "He has less pity on school children / And on grownups he has no pity at all".

According to a story by Chana Bloch, "some Israeli students were called up in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. As soon as they were notified, they went back to their rooms at the university, and each packed his gear, a rifle, and a book of Yehuda Amichai's poems." (from the introduction to The Selected Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, 1986) However, similar stories have been told about young Russian, French, German etc. soldiers who take a book by their favorite poet to the front. In the 1970s the English poet Ted Hughes made Amichai's work known to English and American readers. Amichai died in Jerusalem on September 22, 2000. He was married twice: first to Tamar Horn; they had one son, and then to Chang Sokolov from 1964; they had one son and one daughter. From Akshav ba-ra'ash, all the dedications in his poetry books were either to his wife or to his children.

Amichai's works have been translated into some thirty languages and appeared in a number of anthologies. "He should have won the Nobel Prize in any of the last 20 years," wrote Jonathan Wilson in The New York Times (December 10, 2000), "but he knew that as far as the Scandinavian judges were concerned, and whatever his personal politics, which were indubitably on the dovish side, he came from the wrong side of the stockade."

For further reading: The Full Severity of Compassion: The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai by Chana Kronfeld (2015); Yehuda Amichai: The Making of Israel's National Poet by Nili Scharf Gold (2008); 'Amichai, Yehudah' by Noam Flinker, in Encyclopedia of World Literature in the 20th Century, Vol. 1, ed. Steven R. Serafin (1999); The Experienced Soul: Studies in Amichai, ed. Glenda Abramson and David Patterson (1997); 'Yehuda Amichai' in The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces, ed. Maynard Mack (1995); 'Amichai, Yehuda' by Daniel Weissbort, in Contemporary World Writers, ed. Tracy Chevalier 1993); Voices of Israel by Joseph Cohen (1990); The Writing of Yehudah Amichai: A Thematic Approach by Glenda Abramson (1989)

Selected works:

  • Akhshav uva-yamim ha-aherim, 1955 
    - Now and in Other Days (selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Be-merhak shete tikvot, 1958
    - Two Hopes Away (selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Be-merhak ha-tsiburit, 1959
  • Be-ruah ha-nora’ah ha-zot, 1961
    - The World is a Room and Other Stories (translated by Elinor Grumet et al., 1984)
  • Shirim: 1948-1962, 1962 (rev. ed. 1977)
    - Poems 1948-1962 (selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Lo me-ʻakhshaṿ lo mi-kan, 1963
    - Not of This Time, Not of This Place (translated by Shlomo Katz, 1973)
  • 'Akshav ba-ra'ash, Shirim 1963-1968, 1968
    - Now in the Uproar: Poems 1963-1968 (selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Masa le-Ninveh, 1964 (play, prod. Tel Aviv)
  • Pa ‘amonim ve-rakavot, 1968
  • Mah she-karah le-Roni bi-Nyu York, 1968
  • Selected Poems, 1968 (as Poems in 1969, translated by Assia Gutmann)
  • Poems, 1969 (translated from the Hebrew by Assia Gutmann; with an introd. by Michael Hamburger)
  • Mi yitneni malon, 1971
  • Ve-lo 'al menat li-zekor, 1971
    - Now for the Sake of Remembering (selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Selected Poems, 1971 (translated by Ted Hughes, Assia Gutmann, and Harold Schimmel)
  • Songs of Jerusalem and Myself, 1973 (translated by Harold Schimmel)
  • Me-ahore kol zeh mistater osher gadol, 1974
  • Mas'ot binyamin ha-aharon mitudela, 1976
    - Travels of a Latter-Day Benjamin of Tudela (translated by Ruth Nevo, 1977) / Travels (translated by Ruth Nevo, 1986)
  • Zeman, 1977
    - Time  (selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Amen, 1977 (translated by the author and Ted Hughes)
  • On New Year's Day, Next to a House Being Built, 1979
  • Shalvah gedolah: Sheelot u-teshuvot, 1980
    - Great Tranquillity: Questions and Answers (translated by Glenda Abramson and Tudor Parfitt, 1983 / selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Love Poems, 1981 (bilingual ed.)
  • She'at hahesed, 1982
    - The Hour of Grace (selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Me-adam atah ve-el adam tashuv, 1985
    - From Man You Are And To Man You Shall Return (selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • The Selected Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, 1986 (edited and translated by Stephen Mitchell and Chana Bloch; as Selected Poems, 1988)
  • Shirei Yerushalayim / Poems of Jerusalem, 1987 (bilingual ed.)
  • Sefer ha-laylah ha-gadol, 1988
  • The Early Books of Yehuda Amichai, 1988
  • Gam ha-egrof hayah paam yad petuhah ve-etsbaot, 1989
    - Even a Fist Was Once Open Palm with Fingers (translated by Barbara Benjamin Harshav, 1991 / selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Ani yoshev ʻakhshaṿ kan / I Am Sitting Here Now, 1994 (bilingual edition)
  • Yehuda Amichai, a Life of Poetry, 1948-1994, 1994 (selected and translated by Benjamin and Barbara Harshav)
  • The Selected Poetry of Yehuda Amichai: Newly Revised and Expanded Edition, 1996 (translated by Chana Bloch and Stephen Mitchell)
  • Exile at Home, 1998  (photographs by Frederic Brenner; poems by Yehuda Amichai = Galut bayit)
  • Patuah sagur patuah, 1998
    - Open Closed Open: Poems (translated by Chana Bloch and Chana Kronfeld, 2000 / selections in The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, edited by Robert Alter, 2015)
  • Hedpes veha-shir=The Print and the Poem, 2000
  • Mi yitneni malon, 2001
  • The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai, 2015 (edited by Robert Alter)

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