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||Erich Auerbach (1892-1957)|
German philologist, educator, critic, and literary historian, originally trained as a lawyer. Auerbach's famous account of the genesis of the novel, Mimesis (1946), has been since its appearance one the most widely read scholarly works on literary history and criticism. René Wellek, Auerbach's colleague at Yale University, wrote: "The work is a strikingly successful combination of philology, stylistics, history of ideas and sociology, of meticulous learning and artistic taste, of historical imagination and awareness of our own age." (from A History of Modern Criticism 1970-1950, Volume 7, 1991)
"He who represents the course of a human life, or a sequence of events extending over a prolonged period of time, and represents it from beginning to end, must prune and isolate arbitrary. Life has always long since begun, and it is always still going on. And the people whose story the author is telling experience much more than he can ever hope to tell. But the things that happen to a few individuals in the course of a few minutes, hours, possibly even days - these one can hope to report with reasonable completeness." (Auerbach in Mimesis)
Erich Auerbach was born in Berlin into a upper-middle class
family. The son of a prosperous merchant, he grew up in privileged
circumstances in a predominantly Jewish
neighborhood in Charlottenburg. At the French gymnasium, an
elite school, he underwent a training in classical studies and in
reading and writing French. In 1913 Auerbach received a Doctor of Law
degree from the
University of Heidelberg, where got to know several members of the Max
Weber circle. During World War I he served in the German army, and was
wounded in the leg; the injury left him with a limp.
Even before the war Auerbach renounced law for
literature. He changed disciplines and earned his doctorate in Romance
philology from the University of Greifswald in 1921, where his advicer
Erhard Lommatzsch had moved. His dissertation was entitled Zur
Technik der Frührenaissancenovelle in Italien und Frankreich.
In 1922 he married Marie Mankiewitz, whose family was the largest
private shareholder of the Deutsche Bank.
They had one son, Clemens. Marie's younger sister married Raoul
Hausmann, a founding member of the Dada movement in Berlin.
From 1923 to 1929 Auerbach served as a librarian of the Prussian
State Library in Berlin, spending these years just reading, translating
Giambattista Vico's Scienza nuova, and writing his first book
of Dante. After a paper on Vico in 1922, Auerbach's German translation Scienza
appeared in 1924 and then in 1927 his translation of Croce's
introduction to Vico. At the age of thirty-seven, he was appointed the
chair of Romance philology at the University of
Marburg, succeeding Leo Spitzer, who had moved to Cologne.
Auerbach spent only six years as a professor in Germany. To
keep his job, he took the oath of allegiance to Hitler in 1934. In
Marburg he gained recognition with his work Dante, Poet of the
(1929). Auerbach argued that after Dante myth and legend became
history; he was the first great realist author, "the concrete
individual in his unity and wholeness; in that he has been followed by
all subsequent portrayers of man." Later Harold Bloom elaborated these
lines of thought when he wrote in Shakespeare:
The Invention of the Human (1998) that Shakespeare "invented the
human as we continue to know it." The other major authors and thinkers,
to whom Auerbach showed a lifelong interest, were Vico and
Hitler's election as chancellor of
German in 1933, a law was passed which would make impossible for Jews
to hold official positions. Aurbach was dismissed by the Nazis in 1935.
The last essay Auerbach published before his emigration was
'Giambattista Vico und die Idee der Philologie' (1936). He emphasized
that in the center of Vico's conception of mankind was that "what all
human beings hold in common is the entirety of historical reality, in
all its greatness and its horror. Not only did he see historical
individuals in their totality; he also saw that he was himself a human
being and that it made human to understand them. ... he saw the other
With a letter from Croce, and with support of Spitzer, he went to
Istanbul where he taught at the Istanbul State
University. Like many other German émigrés, he settled in the suburb of
Bebek. His wife Maria and son Clemens followed him into exile.
With them came sixty-odd cases of books. In a letter to
Walter Benjamin (1892-1940), exiled in Paris, he said that Istanbul is
"still a fundamentally Hellenistic city, for the Arab, Armenian,
Jewish, and the now dominant Turkish element, too, all meld or coexist
in an entity that is likely held together by the old Hellenistic kind
of cosmopolitanism." (East-West Mimesis: Auerbach in Turkey
by Kader Konuk, 2010, p. 56)
Between May 1942 and April 1945,
Auerbach composed his most famous work, Mimesis, which was first
published in Berne, Switzerland, in 1946, and seven years later in English by Princeton University Press.
Throughout his stay in Turkey, Auerbach's mindset remained Eurocentric.
Mimesis was written in opposition to Nazi barbarism to
defend the story of Western humanism. Noteworthy, when Auerbach opened the first chapter of
with an analysis of the scene in Homer's Odyssey, in which Eurykleia
recognizes the hero's scar, he never mentions anywhere that the epic had links to Asia Minor.
The American thinker and literary critic Edward W. Said, for whom Auerbach represented a major figure of an alternative, secular humanism, has stated that "No reader of Erich Auerbach's Mimesis, one of the most admired and influential books of literary criticism ever written, has failed to be impressed by the circumstances of the book's actual writing." (The World, the Text, and the Critic by Edward W. Said, 1983, p. 5) The working conditions in exile were far from ideal: Auerbach did not have access to all the literature he needed and the libraries were not well equipped for European studies. Commenting upon his isolation, Auerbach said in the 'Epilogue' to Mimesis: "On the other hand it is quite possible that the book owes its existence to just this lack of a rich and specialized library. It had been possible for me to acquaint myself with all the work that has been done on so many subjects, I might never have reached the point of writing." Two smaller studies dating from this period appeared in Finland in the journal Neuphilologische Mitteilungen.
In 1947 Auerbach moved to the United States. Having been cast
out of Europe and deciding not to return, Auerbach refused the offer of
a chair in West Germany.
For a short period, he was a teacher at Pennsylvania State University.
Due to a preexisting heart problem, he had to leave because he could
not be insured by the university's insurance company.
Before Auerbach was appointed Professor of French and Romance
philology at Yale University, a temporary refuge, with the help of Erwin Panofsky, was found at the Institute for
Advanced Study in Princeton in 1949-50. His alienation from the modern world Auerbach expressed in the essay 'Philology and Weltliteratur' (1952), saying in the last paragraph, "We must
return, in admittedly altered circumstances, to the knowledge that
prenational medieval culture already possessed: the knowledge that the
spirit [Geist] is not national. Paupertas and terra aliena:
this or something to this effect." Auerbach concluded his career as the
Professor of Romance Philology at Yale.
In the last years of his life, Auerbach was becoming a legendary figure in the U.S. academic community: "Jew by birth (Israélite de naissance), agnoctic by formation and cast of mind, painter of Greco-Roman culture and reader of the Church Fathers and Dante, [Auerbach] seemed to us to embody the precious qualities of the European humanist of the time of Lessing, Herder and Goethe". (Henri Peyre, in 'Typology and the Holocaust: Erich Auerbach and Judeo-Christian Europe' by Malachi Haim Hacohen, in Central European Jewish Émigrés and the Shaping of Postwar Culture: Studies in Memory of Lilian Furst (1931-2009), edited by Julie Mell and Malachi Hacohen, 2014, p. 73) Auerbach died in Gaylord Sanatorium, Wallingford, Connecticut, on October 13, 1957. In his final book, Literary Language & Its Public in Late Antiquity and in the Middle Ages (1958), he stated, "My purpose is always to write history."
Mimesis focused on changing conceptions of reality as they are reflected in literary history. Auerbach's point of view constantly moves between the content and analysis of the language and such questions as the difference between the high and low style. The word "mimesis" has almost the same meaning as "mime," but is broadly translated as "imitation." Auerbach starts from Homer and continues throught the texts of Dante, Shakespeare, Cervantes, etc. ending with such writers as Marcel Proust and Virginia Woolf. Often he first focuses on stylistic analysis and interpretations of meaning, and from these comments he moves to broader observations on social history and culture. Although Auerbach analyzes writers' attitudes toward reality, he does not rush to give the reader his own definition of the concept "realism." Auerbach's idea is to approach the subject from different angles, through writers and a selection of excerpts from wide variety of texts, mostly from France and Italy. From Scandinavian writers Ibsen is settled with a few sentences and about Russian realism Auerbach writes: "...remembering it came into its own only during the nineteenth century and indeed only during the second half of it, we cannot escape the observation that it is based on a Christian and traditionally patriarchal concept of the creatural dignity of every human being regardless of social rank and position, and hence that it is fundamentally related to old-Christian than to modern occidental realism. The enlightened, active bourgeoisie, with its assumption of economic and intellectual leadership, which everywhere else underlay modern culture in general and modern realism in particular, seems to have scarcely existed in Russia."
According to Auerbach, Stendhal and Balzac broke the rigid separation of stylistic levels, dating from classical antiquity, in which the low, comic mode was reserved for the description of ordinary, everyday reality, and tragic, the problematic, the serious within everyday life was depicted in the high style. But before these French writers, who did not separate the serious and the realistic, the unification of styles was seen in Dante's Commedia. Christ's passion, in which the low and the sublime were combined, broke down the hierarchical rules of literary depiction for the first time. Modern realistic view of the world was fully developed in the character of Julien Sorel from Stendhal's novel The Red and the Black (1830) – Sorel's tragic life is deeply connected with the historical, social, and political conditions of the period.
René Wellek has criticized that Auerbach's concept of realism is contradictory: "... the early examples of the uses of realism are quite different from those he uses in the later sections on Stendhal, Balzac, and the Goncourts. He uses the term realism in the book in the most diverse manner, yet still always referring to the "represented reality." (from A History of Modern Criticism 1970-1950, Volume 7) Also the concept of mimesis has been defined in many ways in contemporary aesthetics, referring sometimes to the inner world of consciousness. Against the view of the novel as a realistic representation of human experience, structuralists and deconstructionists have emphasized the self-referentiality of all literature. Auerbach himself insisted, that the New Criticism was a threat to scholarship.
For further reading: 'Old Testament Realism in the Writings of Erich Auerbach' by James I. Porter, in Jews and the Ends of Theory, edited by Shai Ginsburg, Martin Land, and Jonathan Boyarin (2019); The Pen Confronts the Sword: Exiled German Scholars Challenge Nazism by Avihu Zakai (2018); 'Erich Auerbach and the Crisis of German Philology,' in Jewish Exiles and European Thought in the Shadow of the Third Reich: Baron, Popper, Strauss, Auerbach by David Weinstein and Avihu Zakai (2017); Erich Auerbach and the Crisis of German Philology by Avihu Zakai (2016); 'Typology and the Holocaust: Erich Auerbach and Judeo-Christian Europe' by Malachi Haim Hacohen, in Religions 3 (2012); East-West Mimesis: Auerbach in Turkey by Kader Konuk (2010); 'Introduction to Erich Auerbach "Passio as Passion"' by Martin Elsky, in Criticism, 43:3 (2001); 'Auerbach in Istanbul: Edward Said, Secular Criticism, and the Question of Minority' by Aamir R. Mufti, in Critical Inquiry, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Autumn, 1998); Literary History and the Challenge of Philology, edited by Seth Lerer (1996); A History of Modern Criticism 1750-1950: Volume 7, by René Wellek (1991); Literary Criticism and the Structures of History by G. Green (1982)