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||Faiz Ahmed Faiz, pseud. of Faiz Ahmed (1910-1984)|
Pakistani poet and journalist, who combined in his poetry the themes of love, beauty, and political ideals into a vision of a better world and goodness. Faiz's first language was Punjabi but he gained fame with his poems written in Urdu, a language similar to Arabic. Due to his opposition to the government and military dictators, Faiz spent several years in prison and was forced to go into exile at different times in his career. Next to Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), Faiz is one of the best-known poets of Pakistan.
The suspense that lasts between killers and weapons
So bring the order for my execution.
Faiz Ahmed Faiz was born in Sialkot in the Punjab, then a part of
India under British rule. His family were well-to-do landowners. Faiz's
father, Sultan Mohammad Khan, died in Sialkot in 1913. A self-made man, he adventured in Afghanistan, studied in Cambridge, became a lawyer and was interested in literature. His
friends included prominent literary figures, including Sir
Muhammad Iqbal (1873-1938), the national poet of Pakistan. During
his travels, he had accquired several wives; they spoke Persian. Upon
returning to Sialkot, he married Sultan Fatima, Faiz's mother.
memorized the Quran at an early age. He received his education at mission schools in the English
language, but he also learned Urdu, Persian, and Arabic. While still at
school, Faiz wrote his first poems. He studied English and Arabic
literatures at Government College, Lahore, receiving in 1932 his M.A.
in English, and in Arabic from Oriental College, Lahore. After graduating he worked as a teacher in
Amritsar and Lahore. In addition to his formal education, very important for Faiz's development, he participated in the
activities of literary circles, which gathered at homes of established
In the 1930s, Faiz was drawn to the leftist
Progressive Movement by Rasheed Jahan, who also introduced him to Marxism. The Communist Manifesto (1848) was a revelation for him, but he never joined the Communist Party. Until the late 1940s, Faiz was active in All India Progressive Writer’s Association. Under the leadership of Syed Sajjad Zaheer
(1905-1973), authors were expected to follow the dictates of the
Socialist Realism, but by the 1950s the movement had ceased to be an
effective literary force.
During World War II, Faiz served in the
Indian army in Delhi in the Public Relations Office, and in 1944 he was
promoted to the rank of Lieut. Colonel. For his services he was awarded the M.B.E. in 1946. After the Islamic republic of
Pakistan was established in 1947, the country experienced an era of
chronic political instability, heightened by tensions between Hindus
and Muslims. Following the division of the subcontinent,
Faiz resigned from the army, opted for Pakistan and moved there
with his family.
In 1947, Faiz was appointed chief editor of the leftist English-language daily, Pakistan Times, founded by the wealthy landowner and businessman Mian Iftikharuddin. The main aim of the paper was to promote the idea of Pakistan, a separate homeland for the Muslims of British India. Faiz also worked as managing editor of the Urdu daily Imroz, and was actively involved in organizing trade unions.
Alys Faiz, a fellow socialist from London whom Faiz had married in 1941 at Pari Mahal in Srinagar, later published a book of memoirs, Over My Shoulder (1993), about her life as a British expatriate living in Pakistan. Alys, like her husband, was committed to India's struggle for freedom. She died in 2003. India's awakening Faiz called a ''night-bitten'' morning, a ''pockmarked'' daybreak.
Faiz's criticism of the governmet did not go unnoticed. In March 1951 Faiz along with a number of army officers and two leaders of the Communist Party of Pakistan were implicated in the so-called Rawalpindi Conspiracy case and arrested under Safety Act. The goverment authorities alleged that Faiz and others were planning a coup d'etat. Although the charges against Faiz were partly baseless, he spent more tahn four years in prison under a sentence of death. Meanwhile, to support her family Alys Faiz, worked for the Pakistan Times. During the military regime of Ayub Khan, Faiz was arrested again. Recalling a visit to a dentist, in chains, Faiz wrote in a poem: "Let's walk the streets, feet chained! / Walk with chained hands, / Walk with swagger and swank / with muddied faaces, blood-stained clothes– / Don't keep the streets waiting, / Friends, let's all walk." Noteworthy, after the outbreak of the Indo-Pakistan war, which led to the separation of East Pakistan and establishment of Bangladesh, the patriotic Faiz sided with Ayub, who had imprisoned him.
After his second
incarceration, Faiz went to exile in London, where he wrote in a poem:
"To the city of my friend, / my respects to your intense / passion, /
My country, bless your / threadbare clothes!" (in 'Bravo, Security Against Pain,' translated by Riz Rahim)
In 1962 Faiz was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize by the Soviet
Union, which made him even more suspect. The next two years he spent in
Britain in self-imposed exile. In 1964 Faiz returned to Pakistan, where
he worked as a teacher, held administrative posts, and wrote plays for
the radio.His poems, which renewed the traditional
romantic imagery of Urdu poetry, gained a huge popularity. Faiz
also spoke for the use of regional languages of Pakistan in
education, the media, and literary expression. When Zulfikar
Ali Bhutto became the prime minister, he appointed Faiz as an
advisor to the ministry of education in Islamabad.
Between 1978 and 1982, rather than live under the rule of the ultraconservative General Mohammed Zia ul-Haq, Faiz traveled in Moscow, London and other places. While in the war-torn Beirut, he edited the Afro-Asian writers' magazine Lotus, which was sponsored by the Soviet Union. After a period of exile in Lebanon, he returned permanently to his home country in 1983. Faiz died of a heart attack in the Mayo Hospital in Lahore on November 20, 1984.
Faiz published seven books of poetry; the posthumous Nusqa-ha-e-wafa (1984) contained the volumes which came out during his lifetime. The early collections, A Naqsh-e Feryadi (1943), Dast-e Saba (1952), which came out while he was in jail, and Zindan Namah (1956), an antohology of prison poems, were politically motivated, and include some of his most famous poems based on his prison experiences. Faiz describes his life behind the walls, in confinement, finding consolation in the thought that "though tyrants may command that lamps be smashed / in rooms where lovers are destined to meet / they cannot snuff out the moon..." (from 'A Prison Evening') When Faiz was refused pen and paper, his fellow prisoner, Major M. Is'haaq tried to memorize as many poems as he could.
Faiz's tone is introspective along the conventions of ghazal, the favorite form of traditional Urdu poetry. But Faiz also expresses feelings of other political prisoners when he writes: "I make a toast to my friends everywhere, / here in my homeland and scross the world: 'Let us drink, my dear ones, to human beauty, / to the loveliness of earth.'" (from 'Solitary Confinement') Through his own suffering, he senses the plight and suffering of others: "What if I'm unhappy? / The whole world is unhappy; / this pain isn't just yours or mine, / this is our heritage, my dear."
Fredric Jameson has argued in his essay 'Third World Literature in the Era of Mulatrinational Capitalism' (Social Text, fall 1986) that "the story of the private individual destiny is always an allegory of the embattled situation of the public third-world culture and society". In one of his prison poems Faiz paralles his own fate with the authoritarian system outside the prison: "If you look at the city from here / there is no one fully in control of his senses. / Every young man bears the brand of a criminal, / every young woman the emblem of a slave." (from 'If You Look at the City from Here') A supporter of the Palestinian cause, he dedicated Meray Dil, Meray Musafir (1980) to Yasser Arafat.
In spite of his Marxist beliefs, Faiz did not burden his poems with ideological rhetoric. While he opposed religious orthodoxy, his verse embraced Sufi thought, resistance to authoritarianism and freedom of the spirit and soul. Classic traditional forms are fused with new symbols derived from Western political ideas. In an interview Faiz has criticized the view that a poet "should always present some kind of philosophical, political or some other sort of thesis..." Like Muhammad Iqbal, he reinterpreted the most important theme in the Urdu ghazal, the theme of love. The word ghazal comes from Arabic and has been translated as "to talk with women" or "to talk of women."
Faiz often addressed his poem to his "beloved," who can be interpreted as his muse, his country, or his concept of beauty or social change. "Your beauty still delights me, but what can I do? / The world knows how to deal out pain, apart from passion, / and manna for the heart, beyond realm of love. / Don't ask from me, Beloved, love like that one long ago." (from 'Don't Ask Me Now, Beloved') The traditional beloved of ghazal cannot offer an answer to human suffering and social problems – "Bitter threads began to unravel before me / as I went into alleys and in open markets / saw bodies plastered with ash, bathed in blood. / I saw them sold and bought / again and again. / This too deserves my attention."
The Palestinian American literary theorist and critic Edward W. Said wrote in Culture and Imperialism
(1994): "Real problems of democracy, development, and destiny, are
attested to by the state persecution of intellectuals who carry on
their thought and practice publicly and courageously– Eqbal Ahmad and Faiz Ahmad Faiz in Pakistan, Ngugi wa Thiongo in Kenya, or Abdelrahman el Munif in the Arab world –
major thinkers and artists whose suffering have not blunted the
intransigence of their thought, or inhibited the severity of their
For further reading: 'Preface' by Riz Rahim, in In English: Faiz Ahmed Faiz, A Renowned Urdu Poet (2008); Encyclopedia of World Literature in the 20th Century, Vol. 2, ed. by Steven R. Serafin (1999); Over My Shoulder by Alys Faiz (1993); 'Faiz Ahmed Faiz and the Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case' by Estelle Dryland, in Journal of South Asian Literature, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer, Fall 1992); The Tradition and Innovation in the Poetry of Faiz by G. Ch. Narang (1985); Dear Heart: To Faiz in Prison, 1951-1955 by Alys Faiz (1985); 'Tradition and Innovation in Urdu Poetry' by G. Narang, in Poetry and Renaissance: Kumaran Asan Birth Centenary Volume (1974); 'The Pakistani Poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz' by M.A. Malik, in Afro-Asian Writings, 22 (1974); A History of Urdu Literature by M. Sadiq (1964) - Note: The exact date of Faiz's birth is unclear – he used the date 7th January 1910, in some sources it is February 13th, 1911; or the year 1912.