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||F(rancis) Scott (Key) Fitzgerald (1896-1940)|
American short-story writer and novelist, known for his depictions of the Jazz Age (the 1920s). With the glamorous Zelda Sayre (1900-48), Fitzgerald lived a colorful life of parties and money-spending. At the beginning of one of his stories Fitzgerald wrote the rich "are different from you and me". This privileged world he depicted in such novels as The Beautiful and Damned (1922) and The Great Gatsby (1925), which is widely considered Fitzgerald's finest novel.
"It was my first inkling that he was a writer. And while I like writers - because if you ask a writer anything, you usually get an answer - still it belittled him in my eyes. Writers aren't people exactly. Or, if they're any good, they're a whole lot of people trying so hard to be one person. It's like actors, who try so pathetically not to look in mirrors. Who lean backward trying – only to see their faces in the reflecting chandeliers." (from The Last Tycoon, 1941)
F. Scott Fitzgerald was born in St Paul, Minnesota of mixed Southern and Irish descent. He was given three names after the writer of The Star Spangled Banner, to whom he was distantly related. His father, Edward Fitzgerald, was a salesman, a Southern gentleman, whose furniture business had failed. Mary McQuillan, his mother, was the daughter of a successful wholesale grocer, and devoted to her only son. The family moved regularly, but settled finally in 1918 in St. Paul. At the age of 18 Fitzgerald fell in love with the 16-year-old Ginevra King, the prototype of Daisy Buchanan of The Great Gatsby.
Fitzgerald started to write at St. Paul Academy. His first published story, 'The Mystery of the Raymond Mortgage' appeared in 1909 in Now and Then. Fitzgerald entered in 1913 Princeton University, where he failed to become a football hero. He left his studies in 1917 because of his poor academic records, and took up a commission in the US Army. His experiences during World War I were more peaceful than Hemingway's – he never saw action and even did not go to France. The Romantic Egoist, a novel started in Princeton, was returned from Scribner's with an encouraging letter.
Demobilised in 1919, Fitzgerald worked briefly in New York for the
advertising agency. There he learned how promotion and attractive
public personality could help sell books. His first story, 'Babes in
the Wood,' was published
in The Smart Set. Fitzgerald received from it thirty dollars
and bought with the money a pair of white flannels. The turning point
in his life was when he met in 1918 Zelda Sayre, herself as aspiring
writer, and married her in 1920.
Fitzgerald's first novel, This Side of Paradise (1920), circulated material from The Romantic Egoist. The hero, Amory Blaine, studies in Princeton, serves in WW I in France. At the end of the story he finds that his own egoism has been the cause of his unhappiness. The book gained success which the Fitzgeralds celebrated energetically in parties. Zelda danced on people's dinner tables. Doors opened for Fitzgerald into literary magazines, such as Scribner's and The Saturday Evening Post, which published his stories, among them 'The Diamond as Big as the Ritz.'
Fitzgerald's debts started to grow, and Zelda discovered that she
was pregnant – the baby was born in 1921. Fitzgerald met in Paris
Joyce who said: "That young man must be mad – I'm afraid he'll do
himself some injury." With
Zelda he made an automobile trip from Westport, Connecticut, to
Montgomery, Alabama, to have fresh biscuits and peaches for breakfast.
His account of the road trip, 'The Cruise of the Rolling Junk,' which
combined fact and fancy, was published in 1924 in Motor magazine, and in book form in 1976. The couple had a broken-down second-hand car; Fitzgerald called it "Expenso," but in reality it was a Marmon, a sports coupé. Jay Gatsby drove a yellow Rolls-Royce.
The Beautiful and Damned, Fitzgerald's second novel, depicted Anthony Patch, an intelligent, sensitive but weak man. He spends his grandfather's money in drinking. In the end of the novel he has lost with his wife, Gloria, illusions of beauty and truth. The work was less well received and in 1924 Fitzgerald moved to Europe. There he associated with such writers as Gertrude Stein and Ernest Hemingway. The Great Gatsby received excellent reviews but the book did not make the money Fitzgerald expected. He was drunk long periods. Dramatized version of the book opened at the Ambassador Theatre in New York on February 2, 1926. The play's success made possible the sale of Gatsby to the movies. The first film adaptation was made in the same year, directed by Herbert Brenon.
The setting of The Great Gatsby is New York City and Long Island during the 1920s. Nick Carraway, the narrator, works as a bond broker in Manhattan. He becomes involved in the life of his neighbor at Long Island , Jay Gatsby, shady and mysterious financier, who is entertaining hundreds of guests at lavish parties. Gatsby reveals to Nick, that he and Nick's cousin Daisy Fay Buchanan, had a brief affair before the war. However, Daisy married Tom Buchanan, a rich but boring man of social position. Gatsby lost Daisy because he had no money, but he is still in love with her. He persuades Nick to bring him and Daisy together again. "You can't repeat the past," Nick says to him. Gatsby tries to convince Daisy to leave Tom, who, in turn, reveals that Gatsby has made his money from bootlegging. "They're a rotten bunch," Nick shouts to Gatsby. "You're worth the whole damn bunch put together." Daisy, driving Gatsby's car, hits and kills Tom's mistress, Myrtle Wilson, unaware of her identity. Gatsby remains silent to protect Daisy. Tom tells Myrtle's husband it was Gatsby who killed his wife. Wilson murders Gatsby and then commits suicide. Nick is left to arrange Gatsby's funeral, attended only Gatsby's father and one former guest.
During the next five years the Fitzgeralds travelled between Europe
and America several times. First they did not find Paris attractive,
but their affection grew during the subsequent years. Unaccustomed to
European hotels, they used the bidet as a baby bath for Scottie, their
daughter. The last time Zelda and Scott saw Paris was 1931. They spent
four days at the Majestic Hôtel before returning to the states.
Louis Bromfield wrote about their apartment in Paris: "... it represented to some degree the old aspirations and a yearning for stability, but somehow it got only half-way and was neither one thing or the other." Years later Fitzgerald explained to his daughter that "I decided to marry your mother after all, even though I knew she was spoiled and meant no good to me.'' He once said that she was well known in Montgomery, Alabama for being a drunk at 17.
To support his expensive life style with Zelda, Fitzgerald frequently interrupted his work on his novels to write short stories and brought high fees from the popular magazines. His stormy relationship with Zelda is told in his novel The Crack-Up (1945). For a few months in 1927, and then again in 1931 and 1932, Fitzgerald worked in Hollywood as a screenwriter. Between Tender Is the Night (1934), and 'The Crack-Up' (1936) Fitzgerald wrote little. In the middle thirties he had lost his illusions and believed he had not produced first-rate books.
"I have cut myself off from the respect of my fellow men, but I am aware of a compensatory cirrhosis of the emotions. And because my sensitivity, my pity, no longer has direction, but fixes itself on whatever is at hand, I have become an exceptionally good fellow – much more so than when I was a good doctor." (Dr. Janney in 'Family in the Wind', 1933)
Fitzgerald's alcoholism and Zelda's mental breakdown attracted wide publicity in the 1930s. Fitzgerald learned that each breakdown made her final recovery less likely. His dependence on alcohol increased. In a letter to a friend he wrote: "A short story can be written on a bottle, but for a novel you need mental speed that enables you to keep the whole pattern in your head and ruthlessly sacrifice as Ernest did in "Farewell to Arms." If a mind is slowed up ever so little it lives in the individual part of a book rather than in a book as a whole; memory is dulled." He returned to Hollywood in 1937, where he met Sheilah Graham, a gossip columnist, with whom he lived for the rest of his life.
Fitzgerald worked on various screenplays, but completed only one, Three Comrades (1938), before he was fired because of his drinking. The screenplay was based on Erich Maria Remarque's novel. When the young writer Budd Schulberg heard that he would cooperate with Fitzgerald in a film project, he said: "I thought he was dead." In a letter to his daughter from Hollywood in 1938 Fitzgerald revealed the "what I am doing here is the last tired effort of a man who once did something finer and better".
In 1939 Fitzgerald began a novel about Hollywood, The Last Tycoon,
loosely based on the life of Irving Thalberg. Before the book
was finished, Fitzgerald
died suddenly of occlusive coronary arteriosclerosis, on
December 21, 1940, in Hollywood, while sitting in an armchair in
Sheilah Graham's apartment, reading about the Princeton football team.
He was forty-four years old. His body was sent to east, to be buried
with his father in Rockville, Maryland, but St Mary's Church refused
– he hadn't received last rites. The burial sermon was attended by
about twenty people; Zelda was absent because she was not permitted by
her doctors to go. An Episcopalian rector, who delivered the sermon,
made public his disgust forFitzgerald: "The only reason I agreed to
give the service, was to get the body in the ground. He was a no-good,
drunken bum, and the world was well rid of him."
Zelda Sayre died in a hospital fire in 1948. Their tragedy was basis Fitzgerald's novel Tender is the Night, which he revised repeatedly. His tortuous marriage was commented upon by Hemingway in A Moveable Feast (1964). In Tender is the Night a brilliant psychiatrist, Dick Diver, falls in love with a rich, beautiful mental patient, Nicole Warren. He marries her, and loses his idealism and potential for a great career, but Nicole, having battened on Dick's strength and love for ten years, emerges victorious. Fitzgerald's novel Trimalchio, which came out in 1999, was partly based on Petronius' (died AD 66) Satyricon. The vulgar and rich Trimalchio, whose banquet Petronius satirized in his work, was the literary prototype of Jay Gatsby. The Great Gatsby was originally to be entitled Trimalchio's Banquet.
Several of Fitzgerald's stories have been filmed. The The Great Gatsby was adapted into screen first time in 1926, but Jack Clayton's version from 1974, starring Robert Redford and Mia Farrow, won the hearts of the audience. The screenplay was written by Francis Ford Coppola after Truman Capote's muddled script was turned down. Henry King's Tender is the Night (1962) is considered a thoughtful and absorbing romantic drama. The Last Tycoon (1976), adopted by Harold Pinter and directed by Elia Kazan, was characterized in the New Yorker so enervated "it's like a vampire movie after the vampires have left." Richard Brooks's The Last Time I Saw Paris (1954), starring Elizabeth Taylor and Van Johnson, took liberties with the original story, 'Babylon Revised'. "Where Fitzgerald did it in a few words . . . . Richard Brooks, who directed this picture after polishing up an Epstein-brothers' script, has done it in a nigh two-hour assembly of bistro balderdash and lush, romantic scenes." (Bosley Crowther, in The New York Times, November 19, 1954)
For further reading: The Far side of Paradise by A. Mizener (1951. rev. ed. 1965); F. Scott Fitzgerald by A. Turnbull (1962); F. Scott Fitzgerald by K. Eble (1963; The Art of F. Scott Fitzgerald by S.Perosa (1965); F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Critical Portrait by H.D. Piper (1965); F. Scott Fitzgerald by C.E. Shain (1967); The Golden Moment: The Novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald by M.R. Stern (1969); Crazy Sundays: F. Scott Fitzgerald in Hollywood by A. Latham (1970); F. Scott Fitzgerald by K.G.W. Cross (1971); F. Scott Fitzgerald by R.A. Gallo (1978); Some Sort of Epic Grandeur: The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald by Matthew J. Bruccoli (1981); Fool for Love: F. Scott Fitzgerald by S. Donaldson (1983); Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald's the Great Gatsby, ed. by Scott Donaldson (1984); The Great Gatsby: The Limits of Wonder by Ronald Berman (1989); F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Study of the Short Fiction by John Richard Kuehl (1991); F. Scott Fitzgerald A to Z, by Mary Jo Tate et al (1998); An F. Scott Fitzgerald Encyclopedia by Robert L. Gale (1998); F. Scott Fitzgerald: Comprehensive Research and Study Guide, ed. by Harold Bloom (1999); Zelda Fitzgerald: Her Voice in Paradise by Sally Cline (2002); The Perfect Hour by James L.W. West III (2005); Careless People: Muder, Mayhem and the Invention of The Great Gatsby by Sarah Churchwell (2013); Paradise Lost: A Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald by David S. Brown (2017) - See also: Nathanael West, Zelda and Carl Jung