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Heinrich Böll (1917-1985)

 

German writer, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1972, whose career spanned virtually the entire existence of the old Federal Republic. Heinrich Böll portrayed Germany after World War II with a deep moral vision and attacked the materialistic values of the post-war society. With the writer Günter Grass, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1999, Böll played an unwanted role as a sort of national conscience. Böll's unorthodox Catholic belief added also a spiritual content to his stories, which were anchored in the present-day reality.

"Art is always a good hiding-place, not for dynamite, but for intellectual explosives and social time bombs. Why would there otherwise have been the various Indices? And precisely in their despised and often even despicable beauty and lack of transparency lies the best hiding-place for the barb that brings about the sudden jerk or the sudden recognition." (from Nobel Lecture, 1973)

Heinrich Böll was born in Cologne, the son of Victor Böll, a cabinetmaker and sculptor, and Maria Böll (née Hermanns). Victor's ancestors had fled from England to escape the persecution of Roman Catholics. Maria was according to the author "a real and true Catholic leftist in comparison to whom all other Catholic leftists paled". Böll's parents gave their children freedom in religious matters, while rising them as practicing Catholics. During the war, Maria's remarks on Hitler in an air-raid shelter were reported to the authorities; her views nearly got her killed.

Already at school, Böll started to write poetry and short stories. In the 1930s, he was one of the few boys among his classmates at the humanistic Kaiser Wilhelm Gymnasium who did not join the Hitler Youth movement. However, his elder brother, Alois, joined the movement to keep his father’s business afloat. Böll graduated from a high school in 1937 with a certificate which had two errors: Böll's birth date was incorrect and his choice of career – "book trade" was altered by the school principal.

Böll was drafted into the compulsory work program. "... my unconquerable (and still unconquered) aversion to the Nazis was not revolt," Böll later wrote, "they revolted me, repelled me on every level of my existence: conscious and instinctive, aesthetic and political." (from What's to Become of the Boy?, 1981) In 1942 he married Annemarie Cech; their first son Christoph, died in October 1945. During World War II, Böll served six years as a private and corporal in France, Poland, the Crimea, and Romania. He was wounded four times. At the end of the war on the Western front, he was taken prisoner by the United States army and interned in a prisoner-of-war camp in France.

After returning to Cologne, Böll studied at the university and worked then for a short time in the family workshop and later at the city's Bureau of Vital Statistics. Böll's first stories appeared in 1947. Some of his early pieces were published in English in The Mad Dog (1997). The title story depicts two friends, a priest and a murderer, who meet at the end of the war but find that they are separated by their own horrific experiences and spiritual emptiness. Böll's first novel, The Train was on Time, came out in 1949. From 1951 he devoted himself entirely to writing. 

"Pedanterie", sagte Bur-Malottke, "wird ja nur von unsauberen Geistern als des Genies unwürdig bezeichnet, wir wissen ja"  und der Intendant fühlte sich geschmeichelt, durch das Wir unter die sauberen Geister eingereiht zu sein  "dass die wahren, die grossen Genies Pedanten waren. Himmelsheim liess einmal eine ganze, ausgedruckte Auflage seines Seelon auf eigene Kosten neu binden, weil drei oder vier Sätze in der Mitte dieses Werkes ihm mehr entsprechend erschienen." (from Doktor Murkes gesammeltes Schweigen, 1958)

During his first postwar visit in Moscow, Böll said in an interview, that "I constantly feel my part of the responsibility for what this army [the Wermacht] did. And everything I write stems from this realization, from this sense of responsibility . . . " His early novels dealt with the despair of soldiers' lives, the oppressive cruelties he witnessed in his youth and in military service. From the "worm's-eye" view of World War II his scope widened gradually on the reality of modern German society. Works such as Der Zug war pünktlich, 1947, The Train Was on Time), Wanderer, kommst du nach Spa… (1950, Traveller, If You Come to Spa), and Wo warst du, Adam? (1951, And Where Were You, Adam?) were written in a laconic, understated style and focused on the brutalities of the Nazi era and army life.

The title of his first novel, And Where Were You, Adam?, was taken from a diary of the Catholic writer by Theodor Haecker: "A world catastrophe can serve many things, one of which is to find an alibi before God. Where were you, Adam? 'I was in the world war.'" In a 1952 essay, Böll accepted the label "rubble literature" as a designation of literary trend which focused on the war, coming home, and reconstruction. Böll strived for realism that would correspond "to the laconic nature of the generation which has 'come home', a generation that knows there is no home for them on this earth."

Und sagte kein einziges Wort (1953, And Never Said a Word), which gained commercial and critical success, alternated the first-person narratives of a man and a woman whose marriage is in crisis because of their poverty and the husband's loss of faith. Billiards at Half Past Nine (1959) took place in a single day (September 6, 1958). It depicted a prominent family of Cologne architects, who have been successively involved with the building of an abbey at the beginning of the 20th-century, its destruction during World War II, and its rebuilding after 1945. Böll reveals in the course of the day the crucial incidents in the past of the family, from the Wilhelminian empire through Weimar and Hitler to the prosperous West Germany of 1958.

Böll made his first trips with his wife to Ireland in 1954 and 1955. Throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, they stayed on Achill Island, were they bought a holoday cottage. Böll's Irisches Tagebuch (Irish Journal), which was mostly ignored in Ireland, came out in 1957. Later the people of Achill established a festival in his honor. When visiting St. Patrick's Cathedral, Böll observed: "Some people . . .  must make a fortune in Ireland with plaster figures, but anger at the maker of this junk pales at the sight of those who pray in front of his products: the more highly colored, the better; the more sentimental, the better: "as lifelike as possible" (watch out, you who are praying, for life is not lifelike")." Annemarie Böll translated numerous Irish authors into German, including Brendan Behan, J. M. Synge, G. B. Shaw, Flann O'Brien and Tomás O'Crohan.

The Clown (1963), written in a series of telephone calls, tells in first person about a young man who plays rather fool than takes his place in the post-war society. In the short story 'The Laughter' Böll approached distorted human emotions through the character of laughter – a person who laughs for his profession. He laughs on records, on tape, in television programs, where ever he is needed. In the end he confesses: "So I laugh in many different ways, but my own laughter I have never heard." (from Eighteen Stories, 1966)

Group Portrait With a Lady from 1971 was again formally innovative: it was composed from interviews and documents about Leni Pfeiffer, through whom the lives of some sixty other characters are depicted. Boll parodied fashionable documentary novels, but also used the idioms of Nazi bureaucracy. The narrator tries to reconstruct the life of Leni, the simultaneously saintly and sensuous heroine. "The female protagonist in the first section is a woman of forty-eight, German: she is five foot six inches tall, weights 133 pounds (in indoor clothing), i.e., only twelve to fourteen ounces below standard weight; her eyes are iridescent dark blue and black, her slightly greying hair, very thick and blonde, hangs loosely to her shoulders, sheathing her head like a helmet." Leni has survived a difficult childhood, a bad marriage, a forbidden love affair with a Soviet prisoner-of-war, the bombing of Cologne, and postwar series of losses. In the end his friends, social 'discards', organize a 'Help Leni Committee' to bail her out of bankruptcy and prevent her eviction.

"Aunt Leni, on the other hand, he regarded as being reactionary in the truest sense of the word: it was inhuman, one might even say monstrous, the way she instinctively, stubbornly, inarticulately, but consistently, refused  not only rejected, that presupposed articulation  every manifestation of the profit motive, simply refused to have anything to do with it... She was the inhuman one, not he, for a wholesome striving after profit and property  as had been demonstrated by theology and was being increasingly acknowledged even by Marxist philosophers  was part of human nature." (from Group Portrait of With a Lady)

It has been alleged that Böll was a member of a CIA front organization in the 1960s and the the CIA paid Böll's travel expenses (television documentary: Benutzt und gesteuert – Künstler im Netz der CIA by Hans-Rüdiger Minow, 2006). In 1968 Böll worked as a teacher at the University of Frankfurt and later at other universities (in Prag 1969 and in Israel 1970). After Willy Brandt (1913-1992) was elected leader the Social Democratic Party of Germany and began his eastward-facing policy, Böll became also politically active and in 1972 he participated in SPD's election campaign.

Böll's major later works include The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum (1974), which attacked yellow journalism. In the preface, Böll said. "The characters and the treatment of this story are imaginary. If there should emerge similarities in this account between certain journalistic practices and those of the Bild Zeitung, such similarities are neither intended nor unintentional, but unavoidable."

The protagonist, Katharina Blum, is a decent young housekeeper. She falls in love with a young man, who is wanted by the police. Katharina helps him to escape, and is interrogated by the police as if she had participated in terrorist acts. She is persecuted in the sensation-seeking press, and especially an unscrupulous reporter named Tötges, who is responsible for ruining her reputation. Finally she is driven to the act of murdering him. When the reporter says, "How about us having a bang for a start?" she shoots him. Böll himself had experienced harassment by the media and his house was searched by police when he announced that terrorist Ulrike Meinhof should be given a fair trial. Volker Schlöndorff and Margarethe von Trotta adapted the book into screen in 1975. Safety Net (1979) was inspired by the press coverage of the Baader-Meinhof terrorist group. Right-wing critic, particularly in the popular press, suspected Böll of sympathizing with social dissidents and even condoning the aims of terrorist. Actuall its bungling terrorists inadvertently help big business. With Günter Wallraff he published Berichte zur Gesinnungslage der Nation / Bericht zur Gesinnungslage des Staatsschutzes (1977,  Reports on the State of Mind). Böll's contribution satirized the investigations of the security forces in the field of terrorism.

In his essays Böll saw his role as a writer to act as the social conscience of his age. He ridiculed contemporary jargon, defended individual freedom and self-determination, warned about the dangers of escalating nuclear armament and the creeping powers of the state security system. Often returning to his Catholic faith – like Graham Greene and Georges Bernanos – Böll examined the godlessness of the times but viewed critically the church itself. On the 40th anniversary of the capitulation of the Wehrmacht, Böll wrote a "Letter to My Sons or Four Bicycles,' which was published in Die Zeit. The tone is very personal, he criticized the Nazi regime, but gives the Holocaust only a few lines: "After the war, after this war, I expected the worst: decade-lomg forced labor in Siberia or elsewhere; but then it was not really bad – only half as bad, when you consider what devastation the war had caused, and more so when you consider that without the German army, of which I was a member, not s single concentration camp could have lasted even for a year." (The Language of Silence: West German Literature and the Holocaust by Ernestine Schlant, 1999, p.180) 

A Soldier's Legacy (1947), Böll's earliest story, not previously published, appeared nearly forty years later in 1985. The semiautobiographical Kreuz ohne Liebe (2002, Cross Without Love), which was written 1946/47, came out seventeen years after the author's death. Its central character, Christoph, fights in the Wermacht and sees it all, and becomes a world-weary veteran. "I want no more. It is horrible to have been a soldier in a war fox six years and always to have the wish that it would be lost," he confesses. The publisher, Johann Wilhelm Naumann Verlag, returned Böll's manuscript, saying that his view of the German armed forces was too black and write and tinted with bitterness.

Böll died of complications from arteriosclerosis on July 16, 1985, in the town of Bornheim-Merten, near Cologne. At that time, world sales of his books exceeded 31 millions copies, over 12 of these in the Federal Republic. Many of his obituaries commented that with the death of Böll  a whole era has come to an end and lamented the lack of a successor capable of carrying on his public missions as moral authority and a spokesman for intellectual freedom.

For further reading: Das essayistische und publizistische Werk von Heinrich Böll by Matylda Łucja Nowak (2015);  Heinrich Böll and Ireland by Gisela Holfter (2011); Das Schwirren des heranfliegenden Pfeils: Heinrich Böll: eine Biographie by Christian Linder (2009); Der andere Deutsche: Heinrich Böll: Eine Biographie by Heinrich Vormweg (2002); Heinrich Böll als Moralist by Lawrence F. Glatz (1999); On the Rationality of Poetry: Heinrich Böll's Aesthetic Thinking by Frank Finlay (1996); The Narrative Fiction of Heinrich Böll by M.Butler (1994); Heinrich Böll: Forty Years of Criticism by R.K. Zachau (1994); Understanding Heinrich Böll by R.C. Conrad (1992); Heinrich Böll: A German for His Time by J.H. Reid (1988); Heinrich Böll, on His Death: Selected Obituaries and the Last Interview, translated by Patricia Crampton (1985); Heinrich Böll by R.C. Conrad (1981); The Imagery in Heinrich Böll's Novel's by I. Prodaniuk (1979); Heinrich Böll in America by R.L. White (1978); The Writer and Society by C.W. Ghurye (1976); Heinrich Böll: Withdrawal and Re-Emergence by J.H. Reid (1973); Heinrich Böll: A Student's Guide by E. Macpherson (1972); Heinrich Böll, Teller of Tales by W. Schwartz (1968) - See also: Brendan Behan's Stücke fürs Theater. Böll translated works from several other authors, among them Shaw, Salingen, Synge, Malamud. Note: After Alexander Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union in February 1974, his first hosts in the West was Heinrich Böll. Böll's works were popular in the Soviet Union, but he was also active in PEN, through witch he supported the rights of authors under Communist repression.

Selected works:

  • Der Zug war pünktlich, 1947
    - The Train Was on Time (tr. Richard Graves, 1956) / The Train Was on Time (tr. Leila Wennewitz, 1973)
  • Wanderer, kommst du nach Spa…, 1950
    - Traveller, If You Come to Spa (tr. 1956)
  • Wo warst du, Adam?, 1951
    - Adam, Where Art Thou? (tr. Mervyn Savill, 1955) / Adam, and The Train: Two Novellas (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1970) / And Where Were You, Adam? (tr. Leila Wennewitz, 1974)
    - Aadam, missä olit: proosaa vuosilta 1947-1951 (suom. Aaro Lassi, 1965)
  • Die schwarzen Schafe, 1951
  • Nicht nur zur Weihnachtszeit, 1952
  • Und sagte kein einziges Wort: Roman, 1953
    - Acquainted with the Night (tr. Richard Graves, 1954) / And Never Said a Word (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1978)
    - Ei sanonut sanaakaan (suom. Kristiina Kivivuori, 1954)
  • Haus ohne Hüter, 1954
    - The Unguarded House (tr. Mervyn Savill, 1957) / Tomorrow and Yesterday (US title; tr. M. Savill, 1958)
    - TV play 1975, dir. by Rainer Wolffhardt, starring Johannes Wolffhardt, Werner Lier, Renate Schroeter
  • Das Brot der frühen Jahre: Erzählungen, 1955
    - The Bread of Our Early Years (tr. Mervyn Savill, 1957) / The Bread of Those Early Years (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1976)
  • So ward Abend und Morgen: Erzählungen, 1955
  • Unberechenbare Gäste, 1956
  • Im Tal der donnernden Hufe, 1957
  • Irisches Tagebuch, 1957
    - Irish Journal (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1967)
    - Päiväkirja vihreältä saarelta (suomentanut Kai Kaila, 1975)
  • Die Spurlosen, 1957 (radio play)
  • Erzählungen, 1958
  • Doktor Murkes gesammeltes Schweigen und andere Satiren, 1958 [Dr. Murke's Collected Silence]
    - Tohtori Murken kootut tauot ja muita satiireja (suom. Kristiina Kivivuori, 1962)
    - TV plays: 1964, dir. by Rolf Hädrich, starring Dieter Hildebrandt; 1965, Dr. Murkes gesammelte Nachrufe, dir. by Rolf Hädrich, starring Dieter Hildebrandt
  • Der Bahnhof von Zimpren; Erzählungen, 1959
  • Die Waage der Baleks, und andere Erzählungen, 1959
  • Billard um halbzehn, 1959
    - Billiards at Half-Past Nine (tr. Patrick Bowles, 1962)
    - Biljardia puoli kymmeneltä (suom. Kristiina Kivivuori, 1960)
    - film 1965, Nicht versöhnt oder Es hilft nur Gewalt wo Gewalt herrscht, dir. by Jean-Marie Straub, screenplay by Danièle Huillet
  • Der Mann mit den Messern; Erzählungen, 1960 (with an autobiographical afterword)
  • Brief an einen jungen Katholiken, 1961
  • Ein Schluck Erde, 1962
  • Als der Krieg ausbrach. Als der Krieg zu Ende war, 1962
    - Enter and Exit: A Novella in Two Parts (tr. Leila Vennewitz, in Absent Without Leave, 1965) / Enter and Exit: A Novella in Two Parts: When the War Broke Out; When the War  Was Over (tr. Leila Wennewitz, in The Collected Stories, 2011)
  • Hierzulande. Aufsätze zur Zeit, 1963
  • 1947 bis 1951: Der Zug war pünktlich, Wo warst Du, Adam? und sechsundzwanzig Erzählungen, 1963
    - Children Are Civilians Too (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1970)
  • Ansichten eines Clowns: Roman, 1963
    - The Clown (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1965)
    - Erään klovnin mietteitä (suom. Markku Mannila, 2004)
    - films: 1976, The Player, dir. by Jill Daniels, 1976, Ansichten eines Clown, dir. by Vojtech Jasny
  • Zum Tee bei Dr. Borsig; Hörspiele, 1964 (radio plays)
  • Entfernung von der Truppe: Erzählungen, 1964
    - Absent Without Leave: Two Novellas (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1965)
  • Ende einer Dienstfahrt, 1966
    - End of a Mission (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1967)
    - TV  film 1971, dir. by Hans-Dieter Schwarze, teleplay by Franz Geiger
  • Frankfurter Vorlesungen, 1966
  • Eighteen Stories, 1966 (translated from the German by Leila Vennewitz)
  • Vier Hörspiele, 1966 (radio plays; edited by G.P. Sonnex)
  • Die Freiheit der Kunst. Dritte Wuppertaler Rede, 1966
  • Drei Hörspiele, 1967 (radio plays; edited by A. Engels and A.H. van Straten)
  • Aufsätze, Kritiken, Reden, 1967
  • Georg Büchners Gegenwärtigkeit: eine Rede, 1967
  • Hausfriedensbruch, 1969 (radio play)
  • Geschichten aus zwölf Jahren, 1969
  • Leben im Zustand des Frevels: Ansprache zur Verleihung des Kölner Literaturpreises, 1969
  • Gruppenbild mit Dame, 1971
    - Group Portrait with a Lady (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1973)
    - Nainen ryhmäkuvassa (suom. Kai Kaila, 1972)
    - film 1977, dir. by Aleksandar Petrovic, starring Romy Schneider, Brad Dourif, Michel Galabru
  • Erzählungen 1950-1970, 1972
  • Nobel Prize for Literature 1972, 1973
  • Gedichte, 1972
  • Neue politische und literarische Schriften, 1973
  • Politische Meditationen zu Glück und Vergeblichkeit, 1973
  • Die verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum, 1974
    - The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1975)
    - Katharina Blumin menetetty maine (suom. Kai Kaila, 1975)
    - films: 1975, dir. by Volker Schlöndorff and Margarethe von Trotta, starring Angela Winkler, Mario Adorf, Dieter Laser; 1984, The Lost Honor of Kathryn Beck, dir. by Simon Langton, starring Marlo Thomas, Kris Kristofferson, George Dzundza
  • Berichte zur Gesinnungslage der Nation, 1975
  • Gedichte, 1975
  • Drei Tage im März. Ein Gespräch, 1975 (with Christian Linder)
  • Einmischung erwünscht: Schriften zur Zeit, 1977
  • Missing Persons and Other Essays, 1977 (translated from the German by Leila Vennewitz)
  • Werke: Romane und Erzählungen, 1977 (5 vols., edited by Bernd Balzer)
  • Deutschland im Herbst, 1978 (documentary drama, written with Alf Brustellin, dir. by Alf Brustellin, Hans Peter Cloos)
  • Werke: Essayistische Schriften und Reden, 1978 (3 vols., ed. by Bernd Balzer)
  • Werke: Hörspiele, Theaterstücke, Drehbücher, Gedichte I, 1978  (3 vols., ed. by Bernd Balzer) 
  • Fürsorgliche Belagerung, 1979
    - The Safety Net (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1981)
    - Suojaverkko (suom. Markku Mannila, 1982)
  • Eine deutsche Erinnerung, Interview mit René Wintzen, 1979
  • Du fährst zu oft nach Heidelberg und andere Erzählungen, 1970
  • Was soll aus dem Jungen bloß werden?, 1981
    - What's to Become of the Boy? Or, Something to Do with Books (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1984)
    - Mitähän siitä pojasta tulee? (suom. Markku Mannila, 1985)
  • Warum haben wir aufeinander geschossen?, 1981 (with Lev Kopelev)
    - Miksi ammuimme toisiamme (suom. Pekka Visuri, 1982)
  • Vermintes gelände: essayistische schriften 1977-1981, 1982
  • Das Vermächtnis, 1982
    - A Soldier's Legacy (tr. Leila Vennewitz, 1985)
    - Aseveljet (suom. Markku Mannila, 1983)
  • Die Verwundung und andere frühe Erzählungen, 1983
    - The Casualty (tr. Leila Wennewitz, 1987)
    - Sankari ja muita varhaisia kertomuksia (suom. Markku Mannila, 2003)
  • Ein- und Zusprüche: Schriften, Reden und Prosa, 1981-1983, 1984
  • Heinrich Böll, on His Death: Selected Obituaries and the Last Interview, 1985 (translated by Patricia Crampton)
  • Frauen vor Flußlandschaft, 1985
    - Women in a River Landscape (tr. David McLintock, 1988)
    - Naisia joen maisemassa (suom. Markku Mannila, 1987)
  • The Stories of Heinrich Böll, 1986 (translated by Leila Vennewitz)
  • Wir kommen weit her, 1987
  • Feinbild und Frieden. Schriften und Reden 1982-83, 1987
  • Rom auf den ersten Blick: Landschaften: Städte; Reisen, 1987
  • Die Fähigkeit zu trauern. Schriften und Reden 1984-1984, 1988
  • Der Engel schwieg, 1992
    - The Silent Angel (tr. Breon Mitchell, 1994)
    - Enkeli oli vaiti (suom. Markku Mannila, 1993)
  • Der blasse Hund, 1995
    - The Mad Dog: Stories (tr. Breon Mitchell, 1997)
    - Palavat sielut: lyhytproosaa (suom. Otto Lappalainen, 2007)
  • Briefe aus dem Krieg 1939–1945, 2001 (2 vols., edited by Jochen Schubert)
  • Kreuz ohne Liebe, 2002 (written in 1946-47; Kölner Ausgabe)
    - Risti vailla rakkautta (suomentanut Otto Lappalainen, 2017) 
  • Werke: Kölner Ausgabe, 2002-2010 (27 vols., ed. Arpad Bernath et al.)
  • Am Rande der Kirche, 2004
  • Erzählungen, 2006 (edited by Jochen Schubert)
  • Stories, Political Writings, and Autobiographical Works, 2006 (edited by Martin Black)
  • The Collected Stories, 2011 (translated by Leila Vennewitz and Breon Mitchell)
  • Heinrich Böll - Lew Kopelew: Briefwechsel, 2011 (with an essay by Karl Schlögel; edited by Elsbeth Zylla)
  • Jenny Aloni, Heinrich Böll: Briefwechsel: ein deutsch-israelischer Dialog, 2013 (edited by Hartmut Steinecke and Fritz Wahrenburg)


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