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Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)


German philosopher, one of the most controversial and original thinkers of the 20th century. Sein und Zeit (1927, Being and Time), Heidegger's most famous publication, deals with the question of Being. Although Heidegger has been dismissed sometimes as unintelligible, his thoughts have influenced Sartrean existentialism, philosophical hermeneutics, Derridean deconstruction, literature criticism, theology, psychotherapy, aesthetics and even environmental studies.

"All research – especially when it moves in the sphere of the central question of being – is an ontic possibility of Da-sein. The being of Da-sein finds its meaning in temporality." (from Being and Time)

Martin Heidegger was born in Messkirch, Baden-Württenberg, the son of Friedrich Heidegger, a Catholic sexton, and Johanna Heidegger (née Kempf). In his childhood Heidegger developed an interest in religion. While still at school he read Franz Brentano's (1838-1917) academic essay On the Manifold Meaning of Being According to Aristotle (1862), which led him to Edmund Husserl's Logical Investigations (1900-01), the founding work of the phenomenological movement. Heidegger read it again and again in the years to follow. At the age of twenty he decided to become a Jesuit, but his noviciate lasted only two weeks. He then entered the theological seminary of Freiburg University, receiving his doctorate in 1913 with a thesis on the doctrine of judgment in psychologism. Heidegger's habilitation thesis on the philosophy of Duns Scotus appeared in 1915. During WW I Heidegger's career in the army was sporadic, and he was released several times for health reasons. In 1917 Heidegger married Thea Elfride Petri, his former student; they had two sons and a daughter.

At Freiburg Edmund Husserl made him his private assistant (1920-1923). Heidegger was fascinated by Husserl's early writings, but did not accept his programme of "transcendental phenomenology". Husserl's critics accused him of ending in solipsism. By 1919 Heidegger ended his struggle with Roman Catholic scholastic philosophy and wrote in a letter: "Epistemological insights encroaching upon the theory of historical knowledge have made the system of Catholicism problematic and unacceptable to me  but not Christianity and metaphysics..."

Karl Jaspers, already a well-known figure in German intellectual life, met Heidegger in 1920, and soon felt united with him in their common opposition to academic rituals. The friendship survived Heidegger's crushing review of Jaspers's Psychology of Worldviews. Later Heidegger's engagement with Nazism separated the two philosophers. In 1922 Heidegger became a teacher of philosophy at the University of Marburg, where he lectured on Greek, medieval, and German idealist philosophy. A charismatic and inspiring lecturer, he attracted students from all over Europe. Hannah Arendt (1906-1975), born into an old Jewish family, started in 1924 to attend Heidegger's lectures. "There was hardly more than a name, but the name traveled all over Germany like rumor of the hidden king...," Arendt recalled in her essay 'Martin Heidegger at Eighty' (1969). She became Heidegger's lover, offering him her "unbending devotion." They met in Arendt's attic room in absolute secrecy; the only witness was Arendt's little roommate, a mouse, which she fed. She was also his muse for Being and Time.

Heidegger published his major work, Being and Time, at the age of thirty-eight. When his mother died in 1927, Heidegger put on her deathbed his own copy of the book. Gilbert Ryle, reviewing the work in Mind (1929) drew attention to Heidegger's "unflagging energy with which he tries to think beyond the stock categories of orthodox psychology and philosophy." Nowadays Being and Time can be read as a complementary work or anti-thesis to Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West (1918-22), both intellectual monuments to the crumbling Weimar State. However, the prophesies of Spengler and other writers of doom Heidegger dismissed as sensational. When Spengler dealt with the life and death of civilizations, Heidegger focused on the Being of human beings, and death. Was ist Metaphysik? (1929, What is Metaphysics?) he ended with the question: "Why are there beings at all, why not rather nothing." Rudolf Carnap condemned the work as strictly meaningless in his essay 'Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache' (1932).

In Germany Spengler's ideas were discussed widely, but the ideas of Being and Time were understandable only for a limited group of people, and it never was the favorite reading of ordinary SA brownshirts in the 1930s. The "barely decipherable" book, as one critic said, established Heidegger's fame as a major European philosopher. Heidegger succeeded Edmund Husserl as Professor of Philosophy at Freiburg. His inaugural lecture, 'Was ist Metaphysik', was his first major essay; the essay, written in poetic prose, became for Heidegger in the postwar period his primary form of expression. Heidegger never published the second part of his magnum opus, dealing with the history of ontology, Kant, Descartes' cogito ergo sum, and Aristotle, but Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics (1929) and lectures on Cartesian ontology and the Aristotelian conception of time mostly covered the rest of his writing plan.

The clash between idealist cultural philosophy and revolutionary existentialism become evident in the legendary discussion in Davos in 1929 between Ernst Cassirer, champion of the republic and humanist tradition, and Heidegger, who was famous for rejecting all social conventions. The place had also been the scene of Thomas Mann's novel Magic Mountain (1924), which depicted a fight between liberal and conservative values, the enlightened civilized world and non-rational beliefs.

Herbert Marcuse, who became Heidegger's assistant in 1928, attempted to synthesize Heidegger's thought with Marxism. Whether Heidegger himself ever really studied Marx, is an open question. In the Letter on Humanism, published after the war, he said that Marx's view of history excels all other history. Basically Heidegger's artificial, airtight world of Dasein, removed from reality and defined by anxiety, dread, boredom and so on, was far from the historical concreteness of Das Kapital and its message of liberation and a salvation. Marcuse saw Heidegger again after the war. They had a talk but there was no reconciliation between the two philosophers separated by their stance toward Nazism. (The Essential Marcuse, edited by Andrew Feenberg and William Leiss, 2007, pp. 116-121)

In 1933 Heidegger joined the Nazi Party and cut off his relations with all his Jewish colleagues, including Husserl. By taking this step, Heidegger made it plain, that the German Idealism has come to an end. "Let not principles and ideas rule your being," he declared. "Today, and in the future, only the Führer himself is German reality and its law." When Being and Time was reprinted in 1937, its dedication to Husserl was omitted. Arendt, who was arrested for eight days, left Germany for Paris and eventually settled in the United States. She renewed her contacts with Heidegger after the fall of the Third Reich. Arendt respected Heidegger as a great philosopher, and ignored his dark political side. Heidegger himself said once to Ernst Jünger that he would only apologize for his Nazi past if Hitler could be brought back to apologize to him.

From April 1933 to February 1934 Heidegger was Rector of Freiburg, adding to his letters and speeches the standard "Sieg Heil!" Heidegger's infamous rectorial address about a "new intellectual and spiritual world for the German nation" was reported all over the world. To his brother Fritz he sent Hitler's Mein Kampf for Christmas reading.

Disappointed with real life politics, Heidegger resigned his post, and devoted himself to lecturing. He still supported the Nazis, but gradually lost his faith in the "inner truth and greatness" of National Socialism. The political authorities had reservations about his philosophy and he was under surveillance by the Gestapo for some years. In 1936 he spoke in Rome to a large audience on 'Hölderlin and the Nature of Poetry'. "... our job is to fight for philosophy in a quiet, unobtrusive way," he wrote in a letter to Jaspers. During the war Heidegger resigned in protest from the committee charged with editing the work of Nietzsche  he did not accept the order to remove those passages in which Nietzsche speaks contemptuously of anti-Semitism. In the late 1944 Heidegger served in a Volksturm (People's Militia) detachment, but his stay in the work brigade was short and he returned to Freiburg.

In 1945 Jaspers testified before a de-Nazification commission, that Heidegger's manner of thinking is in its "essence unfree, dictatorial, and incapable of communication, would today be in its pedagogical effects disastrous." Between 1945 and 1951 Heidegger was prohibited from teaching under the de-Nazification rules of the Allied authorities. In the spring of 1946, Heidegger had a physical and mental breakdown. The visit of Jean Beaufret inspired his essay 'On Humanism,' in which asks what is thinking and states that "for a long time, for much too long, thinking has been out of its element." When Heidegger was reappointed Professor in 1951 at Freiburg, where he lectured to limited classes, he received a package of wine from Bremen as a gift for this occasion.  Expressing his gratitude in a letter, Heidegger said, "The wine from Bremen, an excellent libation, arrived here at noon before the lecture - an appropriate time." (Encounters and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger, 1929-1976 by Heinrich Wiegand Petzet, 1993, pp.62-62)

Heidegger's extremely complex later philosophy revolved increasingly around language. In 'Letter on Humanism' (1949) he stated that "language is the house of being", and in Was ist das  die Philosophie? (1956) he said that the "Greek language and it alone is logos." Poetry was for Heidegger more important than the other arts. He was especially fascinated by the works of Hölderlin. "Poetry proper is never merely a higher mode (melos) of everyday language," Heidegger wrote in his essay 'Language', dealing with Georg Trakl's poem 'A Winter Evening.' "It is rather the reverse: everyday language is a forgotten and therefore used-up poem, from which there hardly resounds a call any longer."

After the war Heidegger distanced himself from his "philosophical anthropology," seeing that it described human nature instead of approaching the nature of things. Like many other thinkers, he argued that technology has grown beyond control and warned of a technological understanding of being. Instead of saying "yes" or "no" to technology he offered a new ideal of letting-be or open-handedness (Gelassenheit); his answer was "yes" and "no": "We let the technical devices enter our daily life, and, at the same time, leave them outside, that is, let them alone, as things which are nothing absolute but remain dependent on something higher. I would call this compartment toward technology which expresses 'yes' and at the same time 'no' by an old word –  open-handedness". In the late 1940s he equalled "the manufacturing of corpses in gas chambers" with "mechanized agriculture," a senseless formulation, which has become a standard evidence of his impenitence in the face of the horrors of Nazism.

The Jewish poet and a former concentration camp inmate Paul Celan in 1967 visited Heidegger's famous cabin in Todnauberg, but what they talked about is unknown. Todnauberg had been Heidegger's mountain retreat since the 1920s, a place where Nietzsche's Zarathustra would have felt comfortable. Celan's entry in the logbook was ambiguous: "Into the cabin logbook, with a view toward the Brunnenstern, with hope of a coming word in the heart." In the 1960s Heidegger visited Delos several times and participated in seminars in Provence. He continued to write and lecture until his death on 26 May 1976. He was buried in Messkitch in the local graveyard. Der Spiegel's interview 'Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten,' made in 1966, was published soon after Heidegger's death. In it he stated: "How can a political system accommodate itself to the technological age, and which political system would this be? I have no answer to this question. I am not convinced that it is democracy."

Heidegger's past has never been forgotten, and the debate about the relationship between his philosophy and Nazism still continues. Mark Lilla argued in The Reckless Mind (2001) that Heidegger "was never able to confront the issue of philosophy's relation to politics, of philosophical passion to political passion. For him, this was not the issue; he simply had been fooled into thinking that the Nazis' resolve to found a new nation was compatible with his private and loftier resolution to refound the entire traditon of Western thought, and thereby Western existence." Lilla refers to critics who have seen in Being and Time a profound hostility to the modern world, and a program for national regeneration, which indirectly supported National Socialism. Elzbieta Ettinger portrayed Heidegger as a predator in her study Hannah Arendt/Martin Heidegger (1995), in which she used their correspondence. Hans-Georg Gadamer has defended Heidegger among others in his article 'Züruck von Syrakus' (1988, in Die Heidegger Kontroverse).

To avoid misleading implications, Heidegger invented in Being and Time a new, meticulous vocabulary, which has made his works somewhat cryptic for a number of his readers, such as Günter Grass, who parodied Heidegger's terminology in the novel Dog Years (1963). In The Jargon of Authenticity (1973) Theodor Adorno attacked Heidegger's jargon, which he labelled as pedantic and which according to Adorno "transforms a bad empirical reality into transcendence." However, Heidegger's language is not related to Orwell's "Newspeak" from Nineteen Eighty-four (1949), but is revolutionary compared to the familiar "Oldspeak" of the professorial philosophy.

The central term in Sein und Zeit is Dasein, the German word for "existence" or "being-there". The meaning of Dasein is temporality; thus the "Time" in the title of Being and Time. Dasein is not homo sapiens, but in German usage the term does tend to refer to human beings. Heidegger was constantly aware that in his task he is a being whose ways of being are the subject of his work. Dasein implies not only presence but involvement in the world. In the hermeneutic circle every interpretation is itself based on interpretation. After provisional conclusions, based on presuppositions, one returns to the starting point, to continue the inquiry into deeper understanding in the circular process of interpretation. The phenomenon of philosophical phenomenology is the being of beings or entities (das Sein des Seinden). The being of Dasein is such that Dasein understands its own being, and at the same time its pre-theoretical understanding makes it possible to understand the being of entities other than itself.

From Heidegger the French existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre derived his notion of "authenticity". Heidegger himself denied that he was an existentialist. "My philosophical tendencies," he wrote in a letter, "cannot be classified as existentialist; the question which principally concerns me is not that of man's Existenz; it is Being in its totality and as such." Authenticity in Heidegger was grounded in the idea, that absolutely all Dasein is characterized by mimesis. Authentic existence begins from self-understanding and authentic life is possible if our being-toward-death is resolutely confronted: "Once one has grasped the finiteness of one's existence, it snatches one back from the endless multiplicity of possibilities which offer themselves as closest to one  those of comfortableness, shirking and taking things lightly  and brings Dasein in to the simplicity of its fate. This is how we designate Dasein's primordial historicism which lies in authentic resoluteness and in which Dasein hands itself down to itself, free for death, in a possibility which it has inherited and yet has chosen." Heidegger writes much about such Dasein moods as irritation, boredom, and fear; anxiety is at the center of Dasein's life, but it is noteworthy that he doesn't analyze love or sexuality as fundamental aspects of human existence.

For further reading: Heidegger und der Antisemitismus, edited by Walter Homolka & Arnulf Heidegger (2016); Martin Heidegger by Timothy Clark (2011); Paul Celan and Martin Heidegger: An Unresolved Conversation, 1951-1970 by James K. Lyon (2006); The Reckless Mind by Mark Lilla (2001); Heidegger's Children by Richard Wolin (2001); Martin Heidegger by Rüdiger Safranski (1998); Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism by Karl Löwith, Richard Wolin and Gary Steiner (1998); Heidegger and Being and Time by Stephen Mulhall (1996); The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger, ed. by C. Guignon (1993); Prophets of Extremity: Nietzsche, Heidegger, Foucault, Derrida by Allan Megill (1987); Heideggers Wege by Hans-Georg Gadamer (1983); Heidegger by George Steiner (1978); The Jargon of Authenticity by Theodor Adorno (1973)

Selected works:

  • Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus. Ein kritischpositiver Beitrag zur Logik, 1913 (dissertation)
  • The Doctrine of Categories and Signification in Duns Scotus, 1915
  • Sein und Zeit, 1917
    - Being and Time (translators: John Macquarrie & Edward Robinson, 1962; Joan Stambaugh, 1996)
    - Oleminen ja aika (suomentanut Reijo Kupiainen, 2000)
  • Zur Bestimmung der Philosophie, 1919 (Gesamtausgabe 56/57, 1999
    - Towards the Definition of Philosophy: With a Transcript of the Lecture-Course ’On the Nature of the University and Academic Study’ (Freiburg Lecture-Courses 1919) (translated by Ted Sadler, 2008)
  • Grundprobleme der Phänomenologie, 1919/20 (GA 58, 1989)
    - The Basic Problems of Phenomenology (translation, introduction, and lexicon by Albert Hofstadter, 1982) / Basic Problems of Phenomenology (Winter Semester 1919/1920) (translated by Scott M. Campbell, 2012)
  • Phänomenologie der Anschauung und des Ausdrucks, 1920 (Gesamtausgabe 59, 1993)
    - Phenomenology of Intuition and Expression (translated by Tracy Colony, 2010)
  • Phänomenologie des religiösen Lebens, 1920-21 (GA 60, 1995)
    - The Phenomenology of Religious Life (translated by Matthias Fritsch and Jennifer Anna Gosetti-Ferencei, 2004)
  • Phänomenologische Interpretationen zu Aristoteles, 1921/22 (GA 61, 1994) 
    - Phenomenological Interpretations of Aristotle: Initiation into Phenomenological Research (translated by Richard Rojcewicz, 2001)
  • Ontologie (Hermeneutik der Faktizität), 1923 (GA 63, 1982)
    - Ontology: The Hermeneutics of Facticity (translated by John van Buren, 1999)
  • Einführung in die phänomenologische Forschung, 1923/24 (GA 17, 1994)
    - Introduction to Phenomenological Research (translated by Daniel O. Dahlstrom, 2005)
  • Der Begriff der Zeit, 1924 (GA 64, 2004)
    - The Concept of Time (translated by William McNeill, 1992; Ingo Farin, 2011)
  • Grundbegriffe der aristotelischen Philosophie, 1924 (GA 18, 2002)
    - Basic Concepts of Aristotelian Philosophy (translated by Robert D. Metcalf and Mark B. Tanzer, 2009)
  • Platon. Sophistes, 1924/25 (GA 19, 1992)
    - Plato’s Sophist (translated by Richard Rojcewicz and André Schuwer, 1997)
  • Prolegomena zur Geschichte des Zeitbegriffs, 1925 (GA 20, 1979)
    - History of the Concept of Time: Prolegomena (translated by Theodore Kisiel, 1985)
  • Logik, die Frage nach der Wahrheit, 1925/26 (GA 21, 1976)
    - Logic: The Question of Truth (translated by Thomas Sheehan, 2010)
  • Grundbegriffe der antiken Philosophie, 1926 (GA 22, 2004)
    - Basic Concepts of Ancient Philosophy (translated by Richard Rojcewicz, 2008)
  • Die Grundprobleme der Phänomenologie, 1927 (GA 24, 1975)
  • Phänomenologische Interpretation von Kants Kritik der reinen Vernuft, 1927-28 (GA 25, 1977)
    - Phenomenological Interpretation of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (translated by Parvis Emad and Kenneth Maly, 1997)
  • Schellings Abhandlung u¨ber das Wesen der menschlichen Freiheit, 1927/28 (GA 42, 1988)
    - Schelling’s Treatise on the Essence of Human Freedom (translated by Joan Stambaugh, 1985)
  • Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Logik im Ausgang von Leibniz, 1928 (GA 26, 1978)
    - Metaphysical Foundations of Logic (translated by Michael Heim, 1984)
  • Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik, 1929 (GA 3, 2010)
    - Kant and the Problem of Metaphysic (translated by James S. Churchill, 1962; R.Taft, 4th ed. enlarged, 1990)
  • Die Grundbegriffe der Metaphysik: Welt - Endlichkeit - Einsamkeit, 1929 (GA 29/30, 1983)
    - The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics: World, Finitude, Solitude (translated by William McNeill and Nicholas Walker, 1995)
  • Was ist Metaphysik?, 1929
    - 'What is Metaphysics?', in Martin Heidegger: Basic Writings (edited by D.F. Krell, 1993)
    - Mitä on metafysiikka? (suom. Antti Salminen, 2010)
  • Vom Wesen des Grundes, 1929
    - The Essence of Reasons (translated by Terrence Malick, 1969)
  • Vom Wesen des menschlichen Freiheit: Einleitung in die Philosophie, 1930 (GA 31, 1982)
  • Hegels Phänomenologie des Geistes, 1930/31 (GA 32, 1980)
    - Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (translated by Parvis Emad and Kenneth Maly, 1988)
  • Vom Wesen der Wahrheit: Zu Platos Höhlengleichnis und Theätet, 1931-32 (GA 34, 1988)
  • Sein und Wahrheit, 1933 (GA 36/37, 2001)
    - Being and Truth (translated by Gregory Fried and Richard Polt, 2010)
  • Logik als die Frage nach dem Wesen der Sprache, 1934 (GA 38, 1998)  
    - Logic as the Question Concerning the Essence of Language (translated by Wanda Torres Gregory and Yvonne Unna, 2009)
  • Hölderlins Hymnen "Germanien" und "Rhein", 1934-35 (GA 39, 1980)
  • Nietzsche: Der Wille zur Macht als Kunst, 1936-37 (GA 43, 1985)
  • Beiträge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis), 1936-1938 (GA 65, 1989)
  • Grundfragen der Philosophie: Ausgewählte "Probleme" der "Logik", 1937-38 (GA 45, 1984)
    - Basic Questions of Philosophy: Selected "Problems" of "Logic" (translated by Richard Rojcewicz and André Schuwer, 1994)
  • Zur Auslegung von Nietzsches II. Unzeitgemässer Betrachtung, 1938-39 (GA 46, 2003)
  • Besinnung, 1938-39 (GA 66, 1997)
    - Mindfulness (translated by Parvis Emad and Thomas Kalary, 2006)
  • Vom Wesen der Sprache, 1939 (GA 85, 1999)
    - On the Essence of Language: The Metaphysics of Language and the Essencing of the Word; Concerning Herder’s Treatise On the Origin of Language (translated by Wanda Torres Gregory and Yvonne Unna, 2004)
  • Brief über den Humanismus, 1940
    - 'Letter on Humanism', in Basic Writings (edited by David Farrell Krell, rev., enlarged ed. 1993)
    - Kirje "humanismista" sekä Maailmankuvan aika / Martin Heidegger (suomentanut Markku Lehtinen, 2000)  
  • Die Metaphysik des deutschen Idealismus, 1941 (GA 49, 1991)
  • Hölderlins Hymne "Andenken", 1941-42 (GA 52, 1982)
  • Einleitung in die Philosophie--Denken und Dichten, 1941/42 (GA 50, 1990)  
    - Introduction to Philosophy--Thinking and Poetizing (translated by Phillip Jacques Braunstein, 2011)
  • Hölderlins Hymne "Der Ister", 1942 (GA 53, 1984)  
    - Hölderlin’s Hymn: "The Ister" (translated by W. McNeill and J. Davis, 1996)
  • Parminides, 1942-43 (GA 54, 1982)
    - Parmenides (translated by André Schuwer and Richard Rojcewicz, 1992)
  • Hegels Begriff der Erfahrung, 1942/43 (GA 68, 1993)  
    - Hegel’s Concept of Experience (with a section from Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit in the Kenley Royce Dove translation, 1970; 1983)
  • Vom Wesen der Wahrheit, 1943 (GA 43, 1988)
    - 'On the Essence of Truth', in Basic Writings (ed. by D.F. Krell, 1993) / The Essence of Truth: On Plato’s Cave Allegory and Theaetetus (translated by Ted Sadler, 2002)
  • Heraklit, 1943-44 (GA 55, 1979) 
  • Existence and Being, 1949 (with an introduction by Werner Brock, translated by Douglas Scott, R.F.C. Hull, and Alan Crick)
  • Holzwege, 1950 (GA 5, 1977; includes 'Der Ursprung des Kunstwerks')
    - The Origin of the Work of Art', in Basic Writings (edited by D.F. Krell, 1993) / Off the Beaten Track (edited and translated by Julian Young and Kenneth Haynes, 2002)
    - Taideteoksen alkuperä (suom. Hannu Sivenius, 1995)
  • Erläuterungen zu Hölderlins Dichtung, 1951 (GA 8, 1981)  
    - Elucidations of Hölderlin's Poetry (translated with an introduction by Keith Hoeller, 2000)
  • Einführung in die Metaphysik, 1953 (GA 40, 1983)
    - An Introduction to Metaphysics (translated by Ralph Manheim, 1959) / Introduction to Metaphysics (translated by Gregory Fried and Richard Polt, 2000)
    - Johdatus metafysiikkaan (suom. Jussi Backman, 2010)
  • Vorträge und Aufsätze, 1954 (3 vols.)
  • Was heisst Denken?, 1954
    - What Is Called Thinking? (translated by Fred D. Wieck and J. Glenn Gray, 1968)
  • Was ist das – die Philosophie, 1956
    - What Is Philosophy? (translated by William Kluback and Jean T. Wilde, 1958)
  • Zur Seinsfrage, 1956 (GA 9, 1976)
    - The Question of Being (translated by William Kluback and Jean T. Wilde, 1958)
  • Der Satz vom Grund, 1957 (GA 10, 1997)
    - The Principle of Reason (translated by Reginald Lilly, 1991)
  • Identität und Differenz, 1957 (GA 11)
    - Indentity and Difference (translated by Kurt F. Leidecker, 1960; Joan Stambaugh, 1969)
  • Unterwegs zur Sprache, 1959 (GA 12)
    - On the Way to Language (translated by Peter D. Hertz and Joan Stambaugh, 1971)
  • Gelassenheit, 1959 (GA 16: Reden und andere Zeugnisse eines Lebensweges, 2000)
    - Discourse on Thinking (translated by John M. Anderson and E. Hans Freund, 1966)
    - Silleen jättäminen (suomentanut Reijo Kupiainen, 1991)
  • Nietzsche, 1961 (2 vols.)
    - Nietzsche (4 vols., translated by David Farrell Krell, 1979-1987)
  • Frage nach dem Ding, 1962
    - What is a Thing? (translated by W. B. Barton, Jr., and Vera Deutsch, with an analysis by Eugene T. Gendlin, 1967)
  • Die Technik und die Kehre, 1962
    - The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays (translated by William Lovitt, 1977)
    - Tekniikka ja käänne (suom. Vesa Jaaksi, 2007)
  • Heraklit. Seminar Wintersemester 1966/67 (with Eugen Fink)
    - Heraclitus Seminar, 1966/67 (translated by Charles H. Seibert, 1979)
  • Vorträge und Aufsätze. Teil I bis III, 1965
    - Esitelmiä ja kirjoituksia: osa II (suom. Vesa Jaaksi et al., 2009)
  • Wegmarken, 1967 (GA 9, 1976)
    - Pathmarks (edited by William McNeill, 1998)
  • Zur Sache des Denkens, 1969
    - On Time and Being (translated by Joan Stambaugh, 1972)
  • Poetry, Language, Thought, 1971 (translated by Albert Hofstadter)
  • Frühe Schriften, 1972
  • The End of Philosophy, 1973 (translated by Joan Stambaugh)
  • Gesamtausgabe, 1975-2007 (81 vols., in progress, 102 vols. projected)
  • Early Greek Thinking: The Dawn of Western Philosophy, 1975 (translated by D. F. Krell and F. A. Capuzzi)
  • The Piety of Thinking: Essays by Martin Heidegger, 1976 (edited and translated by James G. Hart and John C. Maraldo)
  • The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, 1977 (translated by William Lovitt)
  • Vier Seminare, 1977
    - Four Seminars (translated by Andrew Mitchell and Franc¸ois Raffoul, 2003)
  • Basic Writings: from Being and Time (1927) to The Task of Thinking (1964), 1977 (edited by David Farrell Krell, rev., enlarged ed. 1993)
  • Aristoteles. Metaphysik Q 1-3, 1981 (GA 33)
    - Aristotle's Metaphysics Q 1-3 (translated by Walter Brogan and Peter Warnek, 1995)  
  • Aus der Erfahrung des Denkens 1910-1976, 1983 (GA 13)
  • Martin Heidegger / Erhart Kästner: Briefwechsel, 1986 (edited by Heinrich Petzet)
  • Zollikoner Seminare, 1987 (GA 89)
    - Zollikon Seminars: Protocols, Conversations, Letters (edited by Medard Boss, translated from the German and with notes and afterwords by Franz Mayr and Richard Askay, 2001)
  • Existence and Being, 1988 (introduction and analysis by Werner Brock)
  • Beiträge zur Philosophie, 1989 (GA 65)
    - Contributions to Philosophy (translated by Parvis Emad and Kenneth Maly, 1999)
  • Aufenthalte, 1989 (edited by Luise Michaelsen)
    - Sojourns: The Journey to Greece (translated by John-Panteleimon Manoussakis, foreword by John Sallis, 2005)
  • Martin Heidegger / Elisabeth Blochmann: Briefwechsel, 1989 (edited by Joachim W. Storck)
  • Martin Heidegger / Karl Jaspers: Briefwechsel, 1990 (edited by Walter Biemel and Hans Saner)
    - The Heidegger-Jaspers Correspondence, 1920-1963 (edited by Walter Biemel and Hans Saner, translated by Gary E. Aylesworth, 2003)
  • Martin Heidegger and National Socialism: Questions and Answers, 1990 (includes 'The Spiegel-Interview', tr. L. Harries)
  • Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik, 1991
    - Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics (4th ed. enlarged, translated by R. Taft, 1990)
  • History of the Concept of Time: Prolegomena, 1992 (translated by Theodore Kisiel)
  • Bremer und Freiburger Vorträge, 1994
    - Bremen and Freiburg Lectures: Insight into That Which Is and Basic Principles of Thinking  (translated by Andrew J. Mitchell, 2012)
  • Feldweg-Gespräche (1944/45), 1995
    - Country Path Conversations (translated by Bret W. Davis, 2010)
  • Gesamtausgabe, Band 10: Der Satz vom Grund, 1997 (edited by Petra Jaeger, Vittorio Klostermann) - Perusteen periaaate (suom. Miika Luoto, 2018)
  • Briefe 1925 bis 1975: und andere Zeugnisse / Hannah Arendt, Martin Heidegger, 1998 (edited by Ursula Ludz)
    - Letters, 1925-1975 / Hannah Arendt and Martin Heidegger (edited by Ursula Ludz, translated from the German by Andrew Shields, 2004)
  • Martin Heidegger / Heinrich Rickert: Briefwechsel, 2000 (edited by Alfred Denker)
  • Reden und anderen Zeugnisse eines Lebensweges 1910-1976, 2000 (GA 16)
  • Supplements: From the Earliest Essays to Being and Time and Beyond , 2002 (edited by John van Buren)
  • Briefe an Max Müller und andere Dokumente, 2003 (edited by Holger Zaborowski and Anton Bösl)
  • Briefe und Begegnungen / Martin Heidegger, Bernhard Welte, 2003 (foreword by Bernhard Casper, edited by Alfred Denker and Holger Zaborowski)
  • Briefwechsel 1952-1967 / Martin Heidegger, Ludwig von Ficker, 2004 (edited by Matthias Flatscher)
  • "Mein liebes Seelchen!": Briefe Martin Heideggers an seine Frau Elfride 1915-1970, 2005 (edited by Gertrud Heidegger)
    - Letters to His Wife, 1915-1970 (selected, edited and annotated by Gertrud Heidegger, translated by R. D. V. Glasgow, 2008)
  • Über den Anfang, 2005 (edited by Paola-Ludovika Coriando)
  • Becoming Heidegger: On the Trail of His Early Occasional Writings, 1910-1927, 2007 (edited by Theodore Kisiel and Thomas Sheehan)
  • Gedachtes, 2007 (edited by Paola-Ludovika Coriando)
  • Briefe 1949-1975 / Ernst Jünger, Martin Heidegger, 2008 (edited by Günter Figal)
  • Briefwechsel, 1925-1975 / Rudolf Bultmann, Martin Heidegger, 2009 (edited by Andreas Grossmann and Christof Landmesser)
  • The Heidegger Reader, 2009 (edited with an introduction by Günter Figal, translated by Jerome Veith) 
  • Leitgedanken zur Entstehung der Metaphysik, der neuzeitlichen Wissenschaft und der modernen Technik, 2009 (edited by Claudius Strube)
  • Briefwechsel 1932-1975 / Martin Heidegger, Kurt Bauch, 2010 (edited by Almurth Heidegger)
  • Der Spruch des Anaximander: [Manuskript einer nicht vorgetragenen Vorlesung, geschrieben vermutlich Sommer/Herbst 1942], 2010 (edited by Ingeborg Schüssler)
  • Zum Wesen der Sprache und zur Frage nach der Kunst, 2010 (edited by Thomas Regehly)
  • Der Anfang der abendländischen Philosophie: Auslegung des Anaximander und Parmenides, 2012 (edited by Peter Trawny)
  • Gesamtausgabe, IV. Abteilung: Hinweise und Aufzeichnungen. Band 94. Überlegungen II-VI (Schwarze Hefte 1931-1938), 2014 (edited by Peter Trawny)
  • Gesamtausgabe, Band 95: Überlegungen VII–XI (Schwarze Hefte 1938/39), 2014 (edited by Peter Trawny)
  • Gesamtausgabe, Band 96: Überlegungen XII–XV (Schwarze Hefte 1939–1941), 2014 (edited by Peter Trawny)
  • Heidegger und der Antisemitismus: Positionen im Widerstreit. Mit Briefen von Martin und Fritz Heidegger, 2016 (edited by Walter Homolka & Arnulf Heidegger)

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