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||Elias Lönnrot (1802 - 1884)|
Collector of folklore, linguist, medical doctor, professor in Finnish philology at the University of Helsinki. Lönnrot compiled the Finnish national epic Kalevala (The Kalevala or Old Poems from Karelia telling the Ancient History of the Finnish People) for which he travelled for about ten years interviewing people and writing down the stories, poems and songs. Lönnrot was with J.L. Runeberg and J.V. Snellman one of the most important figures in the Finnish movement of national awakening.
"Kielen varsinainen perusta on sen kirjallisuus, joka ei ainostaan ole omansa kauemmin säilyttämään kieltä, vaan joka silloinkin kun se ei voi estää kielen lopullista häviämistä, itsessään jättää jäljelle siitä ihanoita, katoamattomia raunioita." (from Matkat 1828-1844 by Elias Lönntor, 1980)
Elias Lönnrot was born in Sammatti, the son of Fredrik Johan
Lönnrot, a tailor, and Ulrika (Wahlberg) Lönnrot. The croft, where he
spent his childhood, was built by his father on a hill in the shadow of
birch trees. It had only one room, and at one
point, the space was shared by seven family members and two
apprentices. Known as Paikkari
croft, it serves nowadays as a museum. Lönnrot mostly recalled his
early years in idyllic images – in spite of the fact that there were
also hard times when he was forced to beg from door to door for food.
Supported by his
eldest brother, the family managed to send the young Elias to
Tammisaari and Turku, where he studied the Swedish language and Latin.
Due to lack of funds, Lönnrot worked as a tailor, and completed the
studies required for university entrance after private tuition.
Lönnrot entered the Academy of Turku and received his M.A. in 1827. To
finance his studies, Lönnrot worked as a tutor at the home of Johan
Agapetus Törngren, then professor of surgery and obstetrics. Inspired
by his teacher, Reinhold von Becker, Lönnrot had taken the Väinämöinen
poems as subject of his master's dissertation, and made from 1828 a
number of field trips to collect folk poetry.
On his first trip in 1828, Lönnrot walked almost 1,400 kilometres. With him, he carried a flute, writing in his diary that he though of himself of being Orpheus or a new Väinämöinen. Many of the poems he collected were sexually explicit; they were not published until in 1997 in Suomen kansan vanhat runot XV. Between 1829 and 1831, Lönnrot published at his own expense four volumes of poetry, entitled Kantele.
When the university moved its activity to Helsinki after the fire of
Turku, Lönnrot began to study medicine. Though he was not an active member of Lauantaiseura (The Saturday Society),
which had been established in 1830, he sometimes took part in the meetings. At its heyday, this small and
informal group brought together such prominent figures as Runeberg,
J.V. Snellman, Frederik Cygnaeus, J.J. Nordström, and M.A. Castrén for
discussions on literature and topical issues.
Lönnrot's dissertation dealt with the
magical medicine of the Finns. One of his trips was cut short, when
cholera ravaged Helsinki in 1831, and he was needed to fight the
epidemic. After graduating in 1832, he went to Oulu, where he
worked as an assistant district medical officer and witnessed
the consequences of famine, dysentery and typhoid. From 1833 to 1853
Lönnrot lived in Kajaani near Russian Karelia, earning his
living as a district medical officer. At first he saw the small
town as a nest of misery. After gaining financial security, he built
there a mansion for him and his family; it was demolished in 1968 and
replaced by a supermarket.
While in Kajaani, he made eleven field trips among the Lapps, the Estonians, and the Finnish peoples of northwest Russia to collect poems and study the relationships between Finno-Ugrian languages. On his fifth trip to Eastern Karelia, he met Arhippa Perttunen, perhaps his most valuable source. His last journey Lönnrot made in 1844-45 – it took him to Estonia.
In between his travels, Lönnrot began to edit his collections of folk poetry for publication, and at the same time created a new work from his materials. The first edition appeared in 1835 (The old Kalevala), then a collection of old songs and ballads, Kanteletar (1840), and in 1849 the second., enlarged edition of Kalevala. Lönnrot's work soon received the attention of foreign scholars. In 1845 L.A. Léouzon le Duc published French translation of the 1935 edition and the 1849 edition in 1867. An English translation, by M. Crawford, appeared in 1888. By publishing the poems Lönnrot wanted to tell the ancient history of the Finnish people along similar lines to Homer's Iliad or Edda and the German Nibelungenlied. Lönnrot also translated parts of the of Greek epics. According to his own interpretation, events described in the epic went back to the pre-Christian period when the Finns worshipped their own pagan god, Ukko. The epic ends with the victory of Christianity.
In 1849, Lönnrot married Maria Piponius, who was a Pietist, and over 20 years younger. Before marriage Lönnrot had several affairs. In the year when The Old Kalevala appeared (1835), Lönnrot spent 100 rubles on alcohol – he could have bought five cows with the money. After a long period of carefree drinking, he founded the first Finnish temperance society, Selveys-Seura ('Clearheads Club'), but it did not attract many members. To combat venereal diseases, he suggested the compulsory examination of all travellers. Lönnrot also started to publish the first magazine in Finnish, Mehiläinen (The Bee), edited a collection of riddles (1833), proverbs (1842), and produced Suomalaisen talonpojan kotilääkäri (1839, The Finnish Peasant's Home Doctor). Lönnrot's view of the Finnish people was realistic, although for some reason he noted that inland one does not see beautiful women as often as in the coastal areas. Otherwise he did not feel attracted to philosophical speculations, which marked the work of Snellman and Runeberg. With Runeberg he shared an admiration of folk poetry.
Lönnrot was appointed in 1853 professor of Finnish language and
Literature at the University of Helsinki, after Mathias Alexander
Castrés had died of tuberculosis. Lönnrot worked in this post until
1862. After retiring he spent his last years in the province of
Sammatti in southern Finland. From 1876, his home was the Lammi house.
He got up at five o'clock in the morning, played traditional Finnish
harp, the kantele,
had a cup of coffee and then worked for a couple of hours. After
taking a walk or skeeing, he continued with his writing. Lönnrot
interrupted his work only for meals and when he had visitors. The
family had dinner together at eight o'clock in the evening. In the
dusk, he sharpened about 20 pencils for the next day.
During the last period of his life, Lönnrot compiled a Finnish-Swedish dictionary in two volumes (1866-1880), and published a collection of Finnish magical poems (1880). This was not enough: he also wrote and arranged psalms. In his literary work he coined a number of Finnish words for many scientific and technical terms. Lönnrot's contemporaries occasionally enjoyed his skills as a musician and singer. On his travels he played a flute. "Sorrow is the source of singing," Lönnrot wrote in the Kalevala, but he also believed in progress and in the bright future of the nation. Lönnrot died in Sammatti on March 19, 1884. The first statue of him, by Emil Wickström, was unveiled in Helsinki in 1902. 'Kalevala Day' is celebrated in Finland on the 28th of February.
For further reading: Haltiakuusen alla: suomalaisia kirjailijakoteja by Anne Helttunen, Annamari Saure (2013); Lönnrotin hengessä, ed. by Pekka Laaksonen & Ulla Piela (2002); Elias Lönnrot ja ajan aaatteet by Pertti Karkama (2001); 100 Faces from Finland, ed. by Ulpu Marjomaa (2000); Kainuun ja Karjalan parantaja - Elias Lönnrotin Kajaanin aika by Heikki Rytkölä (1998); Finland: a Cultural Outline by Veikko Kallio (1994); Elias Lönnrot, monitietäjä by Raija Majamaa (1991); Lönnrotin Kalevala by Juha Pentikäinen (1985); Monena mies eläessänsä by Tuula Korolainen (1985); Elias Lönnrotin Kanteletar by Väinö Kaukonen (1984); Lönnrotin aika, toim.Pekka Laaksonen (1984); Lönnrot ja Kalevala by Väinö Kaukonen (1978); A History of Finnish Literature by Jaako Ahokas (1973); Elias Lönnrot, Elämä ja toimita, 2 vols., by Aarne Anttila (1931-35) - See also: Henry Longfellow´s The Song of Hiawatha, Matti Kuusi; Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm. Jacob Grimm took up in 1845 the question of the origin of Kalevala. He considered the oldest layer of material as mythical and the heroic poetry dating from later development.