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Molière (1622-1673) - pseudonym of JEAN-BAPTISTE POQUELIN

 

French actor and playwright, the greatest of all writers of French comedy. Among Molière's best-known dramas are L'École des femmes (1662, School for Wives), Tartuffe, ou, L'imposteur (1664, Tartuffe, or the Impostor), Le Misanthrope (1666, The Misanthrope), L'Avare (1668, The Miser), and Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (1670, The Bourgeois Gentleman). His masterpieces are those plays in which, attacking hypocrisy and vice, he created characters that have become immortal types, such as the hypochondriac Argan, Tartuffe, the hypocrite, Harpagon, the miser, and Alceste, the misanthrope. Like Shakespeare, Molière was an actor-manager, but his plays were comedies and had happy endings.
"Of all human follies there's none could be greater / Than trying to render our fellow-men better." (from The Misanthrope, in The Wordsworth Dictionary of Quotations, edited by Connie Robertson, 1996, p. 361 )

Molière was born Jean-Baptiste Poquelin in Paris, the son of Jean Poquelin, a prosperous upholsterer and furniture merchant, and Marie Cressé, whose father was also a merchant-upholsterer. Their matrimonial bed was made of walnut and it had olive green wool curtains, decorated with silk and lace. Marie Cressé gave birth in it to her first son, Jean-Babtiste, and five more children; she died when Jean-Babtiste was ten. Their house is thought to have been on the Rue St Honore. The Poquelins were an old bourgeois family, perhaps originally of Scottish origin. Molière's father was a descendant of a long line of Beauvais tradesmen.

Molière studied until 1639 with Jesuits at the Collège de Clermont, where he had a strict upbringing, but he also received a solid education in the classics of Latin and Greek literature. After studying law at the Université d'Orléans, he abandoned his social class and family's plans for his future for the theatre. With his companion Madeleine Béjart and her family, he cofounded the Illustre Théâtre. The company members were mostly young and inexperienced, but their aim was to compete with the established theatre companies. 

Located in the less fashionable suburb of St-Germain-des-près, the Illustre Théâtre survived for nearly eighteen months. Molière was twice imprisoned for debt. Eventually, after having disappeared for a period of time, Molière and the Béjarts moved to the provinces, traveling around, often performing outdoors. The theatre had sufficient success and it obtained the patronage of Philippe d'Orléans. Molière worked constantly, directing and writing plays heavily influence by the Italian commedia dell'arte. In addition, he nearly always acted in the lead role himself.

According to an actress, Mlle Poissa, Angélique Du Croisy, who was fifteen when Molière died, he was "neither too fat nor too thin; he was more tall than short, he had a noble bearing and a handsome leg; he walked slowly, gravely, with a very serious air. His nose was large, as was his mouth; he had thick lips, a dark complexion, heavy black brows, the various movements of which made his expression very comical . . . Nature . . .  had refused him those external gifts so necessary to the stage, especially for tragic roles." (Molière: A Theatrical Life by Virginia Scott, 2002, p. 58)

After almost fifteen years experience of acting, managing, and writing, Molière returned to Paris. Little is know of his life in the provinces. His translation of Lucretius has been lost. In 1658 Molière performed before the King Louis XIV Corneille's Nicomède and his own farce, Le Docteur amoureux, and organized a regular theatre, the Théâtre du Petit Bourbon, under the patronage of the brother of the king.

After a difficult start, Molière secured his popularity among the upper ranks of the aristocracy – the "people" did not have money to go to the theatre. By 1661, Molière and his troupe had the privilege of performing  in the prestigious Palais Royal, the best theatre in Paris. Later in life Molière concentrated on writing musical comedies, in which the drama is interrupted by songs and dance or a combination of both. Musical scores were composed by Lully, Charpentier, and Beauchamps, who was a relative and dancing master to Louis XIV.

At the age of forty, in 1662, Molière married the twenty-year old Armande Béjart. Rumours were spread that he had married his own daughter. The issue of her parentage has never been settled. Little is known of their domestic life, but Armande soon came into conflict with a number of Molière's friends. Some anecdotes recorded in an anonymous pamphlet entitled La Fameuse Comédienne (1687) suggest that she had one of more affairs. In L'Impromptu de Versailles (1663) Molière's famous line to Armande on stage is, "Shut up, wife, you're an idiot." Armande played mostly female leads and love interests. In general Molière portrayed women as strong and intelligent, who express their own opinions. It is the male characters, whom he ridiculed at every turn. 

During his early years in Paris, Molière's close friends included La Fontaine, Claude Chapelle, and Racine. He first achieved fame with the prose comedy Les Précieuses ridicules, performed November 18, 1659 at the Théâtre du Petit-Bourbon. The author himself played successfully the Marquis de Mascarille, actually a disguised servant; he nearly adopted "Mascarille" as a new stage name. Encouraged by its success, Molière soon had his own theatre, which was competing with Racine's stage plays at the Hôtel de Bourgogne. 

The Shool for Wives (1662) is generally regarded as the first of Molière's masterpieces, but it was criticized by the actors at the Hôtel de Bourgogne. This comedy poked fun at the limited education that was given to daughters of rich families. "It's an odd job, making decent people laugh," says Dorante in The Critique of the School for Wives (1663), Moliére's response to the criticism of his work: he was the constant target of religious authorities.

"Man, I can assure you, is a nasty creature," wrote Molière in Tartuffe, ou L'imposteur (1664, Tartuffe, or the Impostor), which aroused the wrath of the Jansenist theologian Pierre Nicole. The play was banned but Molière escaped further punishment thanks to the royal protection – Louis XIV allowed it to be staged. The title characer Tartuffe has been taken to the home of credulous Orgon. He believes with his mother Pernelle that Tartuffe's pious example will be good for the other members of the family. Orgon determines that his daughter Mariane, who loves a young man named Valère, shall marry Tartuffe. Orgon's wife Elmire begs Tartuffe to refuse Mariane's hand, and he attempts to seduce her. Orgon rejects the truth about his guest and signs over his entire property to him. Elmire devises a way to expose the hypocrite Tartuffe to Orgon, whose eyes are opened a little too late. Tartuffe turns the family out of the house, and tries to have his former host arrested. But by the order of the King, the arresting officer apprehends Tartuffe instead, and the impostor is hauled off to prison.

When an outraged theatre-goer stood up during a performance of Sganarelle; ou, le Cocu imaginaire (1660) and declared that he was being libelled, it made the audience laugh twice s hard. ('Molière (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin)' in The Book of Lost Books: An Incomplete History of All the Great Books You'll Never Read by Stuart Kelly, 2006) While his troupe was in Paris, Moliére played the traditional comic servant himself. There are other Sganarelle figures in later plays, the final is in Le Médecin malgré lui (1667). 

Although Moliére mocked the sly peasant,  the vain bourgeois, and the hypocrisy of the clergy, he was careful not to attack the Crown directly. Art was an instrument of the government, but Louis XIV himself had not much time to think the artistic significance of his favorite, who enjoyed his protection. When the King once heard that Molière was the greatest writer of the century, he replied: "But I never knew that." Louis XIV was the godfather of Molière's first son Louis, who died in November 1664. 

In the last years of his life, Molière suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis – he had a bad bout in 1666 and then in 1667 – but he remained stubborn in his efforts to have his plays staged. The medical profession of the period was a recurrent subject matter in Molière's work. Basically he believed that nature is the most effective healer. Moreover, in his plays, doctors know nothing at all: they "can talk fine Latin, can give a Greek name to every disease, can define and distinguish them; but as to curing these diseases, that's out of the question." (The Imaginary Invalid, 1673, translated by Charles Heron Wall, The Dramatic Works of Molière, 1876-1877)

After the disastrous reception of the first three acts of Tartuffe, Molière wrote its fourth and fifth act. Dom Juan; ou, Le Festin de pierre, finished in 1665 and based on plays of the same title by the actor-writer Dorimont and Claude Villiers, was banned. Molière's melancholic side surfaced in Tartuffe, Le Misanthrope and L'Avare. These plays were apprecited by poets such as Goethe and Musset.

In February 17, 1673, Molière had a violent fit of coughing during the performance of Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid). However, he got through his part. Moliére played the role of Argan, who, referring to the playwright himself, says: "if I were a physician, I would be revenged of his impertinence, and when he falls ill, I would let him die without relief. In vain would he beg and pray. I would not prescribe for him the least little bleeding, the least little injection, and I would tell him, "Die, die, like a dog; it will teach you to laugh at us doctors."" (translated by Charles Heron Wall, The Dramatic Works of Molière, 1876-1877)

At the same night, Molière died in his apartment on Rue de Richelieu ten o'clock  There was no priest present. A Christian burial was denied at first, but it was granted by the King after the plea of Armante to the Archbishop. The burial took place quietly at night in a cemetery for unbaptised infants (Saints Innocents Cemetery). The publication of a plagiarized version of his play The Affected Ladies in 1659 promted Molière to begin publishing his own plays. As a result his works have survived fairly well, but curiously, not one letter from Molière has survived. The Comédie Française was established in 1680, but the era of the literary giants, Corneille, Racine, and Moliére, was gone. Armande married the actor Isaac-François Guérin; she retired in 1694.

Along the centuries, a mass of legend has accumulated around Molière's personality, work, and supposed lack of education and culture. Jean-Léonor Le Gallois de Grimarest authored famously the first biography, La Vie de M. de Molière (1705), full of errors, starting from the date of his birth. The French poet and writer Pierre Louÿs claimed in his article 'Molière est un chef-d'oeuvre de Corneille' (Temps, October 16, 1919), that most of his great comedies had been ghostwritten by the poet Pierre Corneille.  In 1922, on the 300th anniversary of Molière's birth, the Catholic Church honoured him with a Requiem Mass at Saint-Roch.

For further reading: The Life of Molière by H. Trollope (1905); Molière: His Life and His Work by B. Matthews (1910); La jeunesse de Molière by G. Michaut (1922); Molière by J. Palmer (1930); Molière: Sa vie dans ses oeuvres by P. Brisson (1942); New Light on Molière by J. Cairncross (1957); Molière: A New Criticism by W.G. Moore (1962); Men and Masks by L. Grossman (1963); Molière: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. by J. Guicharnaud (1964); History of French Dramatic Literature in the Seventeeth Century by Henry C. Lancaster (1966); Molère by A. Tilley (1968); Molière: Traditions in Criticism, 1900-1970 by E. Romero (1974); From Gesture to Idea by Nathan Gross (1983); The Happy End of Comedy by Zvi Jagendorf (1984); The Life of Monsieur De Molière by Mikhail Bulgakov and Mirra Ginsburg (1986); Molière by Hallam Waller (1990); Molière's Theatrical Bounty by Albert Bermel (1990); Molière: The Theory and Practice of Comedy by Andrew Calder (1993); Rereading Molière by James Patrick Carmody and Jim Carmody (1993); Approaches to Teaching Moliere's Tartuffe and Other Plays, ed. by James F. Gaines and Michael S. Koppisch (1995); Intruders in the Play World: The Dynamics of Gender in Molière's Comedies by Roxanne Decker (1996); La Carriere de Molière by C.E.J. Caldicott (1998); The Public Mirror: Molière and the Social Commerce of Depiction by Larry F. Norman (1999); Molière: A Theatrical Life by Virginia Scott (2000); Molière, the French Revolution, and the Theatrical Afterlife by Mechele Leon (2009); Molière on Stage: What's So Funny? by Robert W. Goldsby (2012); Molière's Strategies: Timely Reflections on His Art of Comedy by Walter E. Rex (2013); Controversy in French Drama: Molière's Tartuffe and the Struggle for Influence by Julia Prest (2014); Molière's Metatextual Maneuvers by M.J. Muratore (2016); Translating Molière for the English-speaking Stage: The Role of Verse and Rhyme by Cédric Ploix (2020); Molière in Context, edited by Jan Clarke (2022); Women and Irony in  Molière's Comedies of Marriage by John D. Lyons (2023) - See also: Isaiah Berlin - Suom.: Moliérilta on suomennettu lukuisia muita näytelmiä, mm. Scapinin vehkeilyt, 1901 (suom. Jalmari Finne), Lannistettu aviomies, Oppineita naisia, Väkinäinen naiminen sekä valikoimat Komedioja 1-2.

Selected works:

  • La Jalousie du barbouillé, 1645/50 (attributed to Molière, prod. before 1655)
    - The Jealousy of Le Barbouillé (tr. Charles Heron Wall, in The Dramatic Works of Molière, Vol. 1, 1876-77)
  • Le Médecin volant, 1645/50
    - The Flying Doctor (tr. Charles Heron Wall, in The Dramatic Works of Molière, Vol. 1, 1876-77)
    - Lentävä lääkäri (suom. Raoul af Hällström, 1963)
  • Les Précieuses ridicules, 1660 (prod. 1659)
    - The Affected Ladies (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Moliere, 1714) / The Conceited Young Ladies (tr. Samuel Foote, 1762) / The Affected Misses (tr. Curtis H. Page, 1908) / The Affected Young Ladies (tr. Barrett H. Clark, 1913) / The Precious Damsels (tr. Morris Bishop, in Eight Plays, 1957) /  The Pretentious Young Ladies (tr. Herma Briffault, 1959) / The Ridiculous Précieuses (tr. Donald M. Frame, in Tartuffe and Other Plays, 1967)
    - Sievistelevät hupsut (suom. Otto Manninen, teoksessa Komedioja 2, 1959)
  • Sganarelle; ou, le Cocu imaginaire, 1660 (prod. 1660)
    - The Imaginary Cuckold (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / The Picture (tr. 1745) / Sganarelle (tr. A.R. Waller, in The Plays of Molière, 1926) / Sganarelle or The Imaginary Cuckold (translated by Richard Wilbur, 1993)
  • Dom Garcie de Navarre; ou, le Prince jaloux, 1661 (prod. 1660, in Oeuvres posthumes, 1684)
    - Don García of Navarre (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / Don Garcie de Navarre (tr. A.R. Waller, in The Plays of Molière, 1926)
    - Don Garcia Navarralainen (suom. Esko Elstelä, 1975)
  • L'École des maris, 1661 (prod. 1661)
    - A School for Husbands (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Moliere, 1714) / The School for Husbands (tr. A.R. Waller, in The Plays of Molière, 1926; Richard Wilbur, 1992)
  • Les Fâcheux, 1662 (prod. 1661)
    - The Impertinents (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / The Boors (tr. A.R. Waller, in The Plays of Molière, 1926)
  • L'Étourdi; ou, les Contretemps, 1663 (prod. 1655?)
    - The Blunderers (tr. Samuel Foote, 1762) / The Bungler (tr. Richard Wilbur, 2000) / The Idiot (tr. Ranjin Bolt, 2001)
  • Le Dépit amoureux, 1663 (prod. 1656)
    - The Amorous Quarrel (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / Lovers’ Quarrels (tr. A.R. Waller, in Works, 1926 / The Love Tiff (Frederic Spencer, 1930) / The Lover's Quarrel (tr. Richard Wilbur, 2005)
  • L'Impromptu de Versailles, 1663 (prod., in Oeuvres posthumes, 1684)
    - The Impromptu of Versailles (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / The Versailles Impromptu (tr. Morris Bishop, in Eight Plays by Molière, 1957; Donald M. Frame, in Tartuffe and Other Plays, 1967)
    - Versailles´n impromptu (suom. Helvi Nurminen, 1965)
  • L'École des femmes, 1663 (prod. 1662)
    -  The School for Wives (translators: Donald M. Frame, in Tartuffe and Other Plays, 1967; Richard Wilbur, 1971; Ranjit Bolt, 1994) / Let Wives Tal Tent (tr. Robert Kemp, 1983) / Educating Agnes: A New Adaptation of Moliere’s School for Wives, or, L’Ecole des femmes (adapted by Liz Lochhead, 2008)
    - Naisten koulu (suom. Otto Manninen, 1931) / Vaimojen koulu (suom. Esko Elstelä, 1975)
  • La Critique de l'école des femmes, 1663 (prod. 1663)
    - The School for Women Criticised (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Moliere, 1714) / The Critique of the School for Wives (tr. Morris Bishop, in Eight Plays by Molière, 1957) / The Critique of the School for Wives (tr. Donald M. Frame, in Tartuffe and Other Plays, 1967)
  • Le Mariage forcé, 1664 (prod. 1664)
    - The Forced Marriage (tr. 1762)
    - Väkinäinen naiminen (suom. Aug. Ahlqvist, 1860)
  • Les Plaisirs de l'Ile enchantée, 1664 (prod. 1664)
    - The Pleasures of the Inchanted Island (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Moliere, 1714)
  • L'Amour médecin, 1666 (prod. 1665)
    - The Quacks (tr. 1705) / Doctor Love (tr. 1915) / Love is the Best Doctor (tr. H. Van Laun, in The Dramatic Works of Molière, 1875-1876)
  • Le Misanthrope; ou, l'Atrabilaire amoureux, 1667 (prod. 1666)
    - The Misanthrope (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / The Man-Hater (tr. 1770) / The Misanthrope (translators: Richard Wilbur, 1955; Joachim Neugroschel, 1966; Donald M. Frame, 1968; John Wood, 1959; Tony Harrison, 1973; Martin Crimp, 1996; Maya Slater, 2001)
    - Ihmisvihaaja (suom. Otto Manninen, 1929; Esko Elstelä, 1977; Markku Hoikkala ja Otso Kautto, 2002)
  • Le Médecin malgré lui, 1667 (prod. 1666)
    - The Dumb Lady (tr. 1672) / Love's Contrivance (tr. 1703) / The Forced Physician (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / The Mock Doctor (1732) / The Doctor in Spite of Himself (tr. Barrett H. Clark, 1915;  William-Alan Landes & S.H. Landes, 1998; Timothy Mooney, 2008) / Forced to Be a Doctor (English version by George Gravely, 1956) / A Doctor in Spite of Himself (tr. John Wood, in The Misantrophe and Other Plays, 1959)
    - Lääkäri vastoin tahtoansa (suom. Oskar Vilho, 1899) / Lääkäri vastoin tahtoaan (suom. Maija Lehtonen)
  • La Pastorale Comique, 1667 (prod., music by Lully, in Théâtre, 1888-93)
    - The Comic Pastoral (tr. Henri Van Laun, in The Dramatic Works, Vol. 4, 1875-76)
  • Le Sicilien ou l'Amour peintre, 1668 (prod. 1667)
    - The Sicilian (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / The Sicilian or Love the Painter (tr. John Wood, in The Misantrophe and Other Plays, 1959)
  • Amphitryon, 1668 (prod. 1668)
    - Amphitryon (tr. 1690; other translations: Richard Wilbur, 1995)
    - Amphitryon (suom. Otto Manninen, 1929)
  • George Dandin ou le Mari confondu, 1669 (prod. 1668)
    - George Dandin (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / George Dandin; or, The Husband Defeated (tr. 1732)
  • Tartuffe; ou l'Imposteur, 1669 (prod. 1664, rev. version, prod. 1664, 1667)
    - Tartuffe (tr. Matthew Medbourne, 1670) / Tartuffe; or, The Hypocrite (tr. Henri Van Laun, in The Dramatic Works, 1875-76) / Tartuffe, or The Impostor (tr. John Wood, in The Misanthrope and Other Plays, 1959; Christopher Hampton, 1984) / Tartuffe (tr. Haskell M. Block, 1958; Richard Wilbur, 1963; Joachim Neugroschel, 1967; Donald Frame, 1967; Ranjit Bolt, 1997) / Molière’s Tartuffe: A Comedy in Five Scenes (adapted by Thomas Hischak, 2001) / Tartuffe: A Verse Translation, Backgrounds and Sources, Criticism (verse translation by Constance Congdon; edited by Consnstance Congdon and Virginia Scott, 2009)
    - Tartuffe (suom. Otto Manninen, 1920; Esko Elstelä, 1973) / Tartuffe, eli, Teeskentelijä (suom. Arto af Hällström)
  • L'Avare, 1669 (prod. 1668)
    - The Miser (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714; other translations: Henri Van Laun, 1875-76; Miles Malleson, 1950; George Graveley, 1956; Wallace Fowlie, 1959; Ranjit Bolt, 1995; J.J. Mills, 2009)
    - Saituri (suom. 1907; Lauri Hirvensalo, 1946)
  • Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, 1670 (prod. 1669)
    - Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / The Cornish Squire (tr. 1734) / Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (tr. A.R. Waller, in The Plays of Molière, 1926) 
  • Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, 1670 (prod. 1670)
    - The Citizen Turned Gentleman (tr. 1672) / The Merchant Gentleman (tr. Margaret Baker, 1915) / The Would-Be Gentleman (tr.  A.R. Waller, in The Plays of Molière, 1926) / The Self-Made Gentleman (tr. George Graveley, in Six Prose Comedies, 1956) / The Middle-Class Gentleman (tr. Herma Briffault, 1957) / The Proper Gent (tr. Henry S. Taylor, 1960) / The Bourgeois Gentleman (tr. Albert Bermel, 1987; Bernard Sahlins, 2000; J. Miller, 2001; H. Baker, 2001) / The Bourgeois Gentilhomme (tr. Nick Dear, 1992)
    - Porvari aatelismiehenä (suom. Sulevi ja Otto Manninen, teoksessa Komedioja 2, 1959)
  • Psyché, 1671 (with Pierre Corneille and Philippe Quinault, music by Lully, prod. 1671)
    - Psiche (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / Psyche (tr. Henri Van Laun, in The Dramatic Works, Vol. 5, 1875-76)
  • Les Fourberies de Scapin, 1671 (prod. 1671; two scenes was based on Cyrano de Bergerac´s play Le Pédant Joué, 1654)
    - The Cheats of Scapin (tr. 1677; John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / That Scoundrel Scapin (tr. John Wood, in Five Plays, 1953) / Scapin the Scamp (tr. George Gravely, in Six Prose Comedies, 1956) / Scapin (tr. Albert Bermel, in The Actors Molière, 4 vols., 1987) / Scapin (tr. Gerard Murphy, 1998)
    - Scapinin vehkeilyt (suom. 1910) / Scapinin kujeet (suom. Toini Havu, 1949)
  • Les Femmes savantes, 1673 (prod. 1762)
    - The Female Virtuosos (tr. 1693) / Blue Stockings (tr. 1884) / The Learned Ladies (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714; other translators: Renée Waldinger, 1957; Richard Wilbur, 1978) / The Sisterhood (tr. R.R. Bolt, 1989)
    - Oppineita naisia (suom. Otto Manninen, 1905)
  • Le Malade imaginaire, 1673-74 (prod. 1673)
    - The Hypocondriack (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / Doctor Last in His Chariot (tr. 1769) / The Imaginary Invalid (translators: Henri Van Laun, in The Dramatic Works, 1875-76; Kenneth Weston Turner, 1939; Merritt Stone, 1939; Miles Malleson, 1959; John Wood, in The Misantrophe and Other Plays, 1959; Bert Briscoe, 1967; James Magruder, in Theater, Volume 34, Number 1, 2004; James Magruder 2006) / The Hypocondriac (adapted by Roger McGough, 2009)
    - Luulosairas (suom. Arto af Hällström)
  • La Princesse d'Élide, 1674 (prod. 1664)
    - Pricess of Elis (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Moliere, 1714)
  • Œuvres, 1682 (8 vols.)
  • La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas, 1684 (prod. 1671, published in Oeuvres posthumes, 1684)
    - The Countess of Escarbagnas (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714; John Wood, in The Plays of Molière, 1926)
  • Les Amants magnifiques, 1684 (prod. 1670, published in Oeuvres posthumes, 1684)
    - The Magnificent Lovers (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) /  The Courtly Lovers (tr. A.R. Waller, in The Plays of Molière, 1926)  / The Lavish Lovers: A Comedy Interspersed with Music and Ballet (translation with introduction and notes by David Edney, 2009)
  • Mélicerte, 1684 (prod. 1666, published in Oeuvres posthumes)
    - Melicerta (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714)
  • Dom Juan; ou, le Festin de pierre, 1683 (prod. 1665)
    - Don John (tr. John Ozell, in The Works of Monsieur de Molière, 1714) / Don Juan (translators: George Gravely, 1956; Donald M. Frame, 1967; Christopher Hampton, 1984; Richard Wilbur, 1998)
    - Don Juan (suom. Tyyni Tuulio) / Don Juan eli Kivinen illallisvieras (suom. Esko Elstelä, 1971)
  • The Works of M. de Molière, 1714 (6 vols., tr. John Ozell)
  • The Works of Molière, French and English, 1739, 1748, 1755 (10 vols., tr. H. Baker and J. Miller, reprint 1929, 2 vols.)
  • Œuvres, 1765, (6 vols., ed. by Voltaire)
  • The Dramatic Works of Molière, 1875-76 (6 vols., tr. Henri van Laun)
  • Œuvres complètes, 1873-1900 (14 vols., ed. by E. Despois and P. Mesnard)
  • The Dramatic Works of Molière, 1876-1877 (3 vols., ed. Charles Heron Wall)
  • The Affected Misses, 1908 (2 vols., tr. Curtis H. Page)
  • The Kiltartan Molière, 1910 (tr. Lady Augusta Gregory Dublin)
  • The Plays of Molière, 1926 (8 vols., tr. A.R. Waller)
  • Comedies, 1929 (2 vols.)
  • Four Molière Comedies, Freely Adapted for the English Stage, 1931 (tr. F. Ansley)
  • Five Plays, 1953 (tr. John Wood)
  • Œuvres complètes, 1956 (2 vols., ed. Maurice Rat, rev. by Georges Coutlin, 2 vols. 1971)
  • Six Prose Comedies of Molière, 1956 (tr. G. Gravely)
  • Eight Plays by Molière, 1957 (tr. Morris Bishop)
  • The Misanthrope and Other Plays, 1959 (tr. John Wood)
  • Œuvres complètes, 1962
  • The Misantrope and Other Plays, 1967 (tr. D.M. Frame)
  • Molière: Oeuvres complètes, 1971 (ed. by G. Couton)
  • Œuvres complètes, 2010 (2 vols., ed.  Georges Forestier, Claude Bourqui, et al.) 
  • Théâtre complet, 2016-2021 (5 vols.; édition critique par Charles Mazouer)
  • Molière: The Complete Richard Wilbur Translations, 2021 (2 volumes)

 


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