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||Roark Bradford (1896-1948)|
American writer, whose works of fiction and folklore were based on his
childhood's contacts with African-American preachers, musicians, and
storytellers in his father's plantations. Bradford's first book, Ol' Man Adam an' His Chillun (1928)
was adapted by Marc Connelly for the stage as The Green Pastures in 1930. The
play won the Pulitzer Prize for Connelly; it was banned by Lord
Chamberlain in Great Britain on
religious grounds. The novel John Henry (1931), which Bradford
himself adapted into a play, received harsh reviews and was closed
after seven performances.
"The night John Henry was born the moon was copper-colored and the sky was black. The stars wouldn't shine and the rain fell hard. Forked lightning cleaved the air and the earth trembled like a leaf. The panthers squalled in the brake like a baby and the Mississippi River ran upstream a thousand miles. John Henry weighted forty-four pounds." (from John Henry)
Roark Whitney Wickliffe Bradford was born in Lauderdale county, Tennessee. He was the eighth of eleven children of Richard Clarence Bradford and Patricia Adelaide (Tillman) Bradford, both of whom were descended from families prominent in colonial and Southern history. Bradford grew up on a cotton plantation situated in the Nankipoo-Knob Creek area, near the Mississippi River. Early in life he was educated at home, he also attended public schools, and the University of California, receiving an L.L.B. degree. During World War I he served as a first lieutenant in the U.S. Army Artillery Reserve, stationed in the Panama Canal Zone. He then became an instructor in military science and tactics at Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College before being discharged in 1920. From 1920 to 1922 he worked as a reporter for the Atlanta Georgian and the Macaon Telegraph.
In 1924 Bradford moved to New Orleans, where he was a staff
member of the Times-Picayune. His home he made in the French
Quarter, living there and at Little Bee Bend Plantation in Benton,
Louisiana. After the death of his first wife, Lydia Sehorn, he married
Mary Rose Sciarra Himler; their son become a novelist, too. In 1926 he
devoted himself entirely to writing fiction. Bradford's stories
appeared in the New York World and in other magazines. His literary friends included John McClure and William Faulkner,
with whom he often spent time at a small café in Franklin Street,
listening the talented jazz clarinetist George ("Georgia Boy") Boyd.
Bradford considered Faulkner the greatest writer in America. William
Spratling drew a cartoon portrait of Bradford for Faulkner's Sherwood Anderson & Other Famous Creoles (1926).
In 1942-46 Bradford served as a lieutenant in the United States Naval Reserve, with assignment to the Bureau of Aeronautics Training, Navy Department. In 1946 he accepted a visiting lectureship in the English Department of Tulane University. While serving in French West Africa with the Navy in 1943, Bradford contracted amebiasis. He died in New Orleans on November 13, 1948.
Bradford's Ol' Man Adam an' His Chillum as collected from stories first published in the World. Later the book was adapted by Marc Connelly into the play Green Pastures, which had 640 performances in New York and five national tours. W.E.B.Du Bois praised Connelly's stage version as "an extraordinary appealing and beautiful play based on the folk religion of Negroes." The production won in 1930 a Pulitzer Prize for Connelly, and lead actor Richard B. Harrison received the NAACP's 1931 Spingarn Medal for making the year's most significant contribution to his race. In 1936 the Broadway hit was made into a movie, directed by William Keighley and Marc Connelly. It was the first all-black film since King Vidor's Hallelujah! (1929). Rex Ingram played three roles – Hezdrel, De Lawd, and Adam. A white actor from Louisiana was imported to coach the cast in bayou accents.
Brandford also wrote novels which depicted the plight of African-Americans in its historical perspective, such as This Side of Jordan (1929), but the majority of Bradford's work was lighthearted and humorous. John Henry (1931) was based on the legend of the "steel-driving man" who died after beating in a contest a steam-powered drill. Between 1924 and 1931, there were nineteen versions of songs dealing with "John Henry" and over thirty versions of jazz, blues, and old-time versions of the song had been recorded. Possibly Bradford had heard some of them. In his story the protagonist is a steamboat roustabout who travels up and down the Mississippi river. The novel was made into a play in 1939. Paul Robeson played in 1940 John Henry in a Broadway musical production, which closed after seven performances. After the influence of civil-rights consciousness, Bradford's stories have been re-evaluated, especially his stereotypical images of African-Americans and patronizing attitudes have been criticized.
For further reading: 'Introduction' by Steven C. Tracy, in John Henry: Roark Bradford's Novel and Play (2008); World Authors 1900-1950, Volume 1, ed. by Martin Seymour-Smith & Andrew C. Kimmens (1996); The History of Southern Literature, ed. by L.D. Rubin et al. (1985); The Smiling Phoenix by W. Hall (1965); John Henry: A Negro Folk Play Based on the Novel by Roark Bradford by Eileen J. Burrer (1951) - The Green Pastures (play), first produced in New York, Mansfield Theatre, February 26, 1930. All-black cast. In heaven the Lord, a kindhearted patriarch, enjoys a fish fry with His angels. God mingles among his creatures, just created, and becomes angered by their sins. He sends the unrepentant Cain wandering and generations later the Lord finds sin still rampant. In anger the Lord sends down the Deluge. But wickedness continues to prevail. When corruption has spread among the chosen people, the Lord renounces man. In the end, however, the belief of one man, Hezdra, and the suffering of Jesus for all men, move the Lord to become a God of love and mercy. The New York Times characterized it "Marc Connelly's naive, ludicrous, sublime and heartbreaking masterpiece." The Green Pastures (1936), film dir. by William Keighley, Marc Connelly, starring Rex Ingram, Oscar Polk, Eddie Anderson, Frank Wilson, George Reed. Humorous folk version of Old Testament stories as seen through the eyes of blacks of the southern United States. The film has been attacked for perpetuating unacceptable stereotypes; cunningly adapted for the screen in a series of dramatic scenes from Bradford's tales. Rex Ingram went on to play supporting roles in many films, including The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, as Jim, the runaway slave, and in The Thief of Bagdad, as the giant genie. "This is as good a religious play as one is likely to get in this age from a practiced New York writer." (Graham Greene). Note: Marc Connelly (1890-1980), an American director, producer, and playwright, won the Pulitzer Prize for the fantasy The Green Pastures. In the film he was given co-director status. Connelly's collaboration with George S. Kaufman resulted in a series of successful comedies, among them Dulcy (1921), To the Ladies (1922), Merton of the Movies (1922), and Beggar on Horseback (1924).