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for Books and Writers
by Bamber Gascoigne

Henry Parland (1908-1930)


Finland-Swedish poet and cosmopolitan critic, whose career as a writer lasted only a few years – he died at the age of 22. Henry Parland was among the rising stars of modernism in the 1920s, who introduced formalism and semiotic concepts to Finnish literature. Idealrealisation (1929, The clearance sale of ideals), a collection of poetry, was the only book published during his life time. His brothers Oscar Parland and Ralf Parland also gained fame as novelists.

Kaffe eller te
(Hamlet sade det vackrare
- men jag är ingen Hamlet).
Han sade också mycket annat
- saken blir icke klarare därigenom
- saken blir icke heller klarare nu
vi kan ju väljä.

(written in Spring, 1928)

Henry Parland was born in Vyborg into a family with a distant English background. His father Oswald Parland was an engineer and bridge builder, who worked for the Russian civil service. His mother Ida Maria Parland came from a Baltic-German family, the Sesemanns, prominent in Vyborg's history. The family's home language was German and Russian. Parland spent his first years in Russia in Kiev and St. Petersburg. His early diary notes – he was about 10 years old at that time – were written in Russian.

The family returned to Vyborg in 1912 and then moved to Finland on the outbreak of the Russian Revolution. When the border was closed, the father was unable to join his family until 1920. Henry Parland's early years in his new surrounding in Helsinki were not happy – he felt lonesome, was bullied in a Finnish school, and eventually he was transferred to the Swedish school at Grankulla. According to Oscar Parland he never fully learned the new language, but wrote his books in Swedish. (He never visited Sweden.) In 1927 Parland graduated from the Grankulla gymnasium, and started to study law at the University of Helsinki. But more than his studies, Parland was interested in fashion, watching films, dancing and drinking. He was soon heavily in debt.

In 1928 Parland joined the modernist literary group around the magazine Quosego; he was the youngest member. The subtitle of Quosego was "Tidskrift för ny generation" (Magazine for a new generation). Parland was in the beginning more interested in fiction, but a meeting with Gunnar Björling in November 1927 inspired him to try his hand at poetry.

The results were seen in Parland's first collection on poems, Idealrealisation, a youthfully cynical visit to the jazz age. It remained Parland's only published book. They both were interested Dadaism and the German Neue Sachlichkeit (the New Objectivity), which Parland wanted to introduce into literary discussions. Some of his short stories employed elements of horror, as in 'Khimaira' (1926), published in Allas Krönika.

Parland's Bohemian lifestyle worried his parents and in 1929 they decided to sent him to Kaunas (Kovno), the capital of Lithuania. There his uncle Wilhelm Seesemann was a professor of philosophy. In a letter to his parents which Parland wrote soon after arriving the city he complained of bad coffee and muddy roads. Parland ate daily at the home of his uncle's woman friend.

"It doesn't matter where I go, I'm always a foreigner," Parland once said. While he was not spending his time in cafés, he worked as a secretary at the Swedish consulate and contributed to Lithuanian magazines. He wrote in German about Scandinavian literature and introduced new Russian and American films and Russian avant-garde to the Finland-Swedish public. For his disappointment Kaunas was a periphery of film art – Helsinki was New York compared to Kaunas, as he claimed.

Parland loved the films of Eisenstein, Pudovkin and Chaplin: "Charlie Chaplin, kanske även Buster Keaton, har visat en väg i enlighet med filmens egentliga väsen, så även delvis den föraktade amerikanska sensationsfilmen och farsen, gjorda efter originalmanuscript." ('Den psykologiska filmens bankrutt,' in Återsken by Henry Parland, 1932) On his bookshelf, he had works by Aleksandr Blok, Sergei Esenin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Anna Akhmatova. "Man kunde dra en parallell mellan [Rabbe] Enckell och Sergej Jessenin. Överensstämmelsen mellan deras motiv är slående," he argued. ('"Mariengof är mindre pervers än vad jag trott". Henry Parland ja venäläinen imaginismi' by Tomi Huttunen, in Joutsen / Saven 2017-2018: Kotimaisen kirjallisuudentutkimuksen vuosikirja, edited by Päivi Koivisto & Daniela Silén, 2018)

In 1929 Parland participated in a literary contest arranged by the magazine Bonniers Veckotidningen with the short story 'Jag och min fars glasögon'. It was included in the anthology De 14 bästa studentnovellerna (1929). During the winter 1929-30 Parland started to work on his first novel, entitled Sönder, but he never finished it. Gunnar Björling read its early draft when Parland visited Helsinki in 1930 and considered it too sentimental and too much autobiographical. The novel, which resonates with Proust's Á la recherche du temps perdu and contemporary Russian literature theories, was partly based on actual events. Henry Rapp, the protagonist is, a businessman and a writer, who recalls his past and relationship to a woman, Amy. The book ends with the death of Amy, Henry's faithless beloved, who remains a mystery to him.

Jag är en stor Gud
och mitt pris är 3:40 litern
och människor slår ihjäl varandra
för min skull.

(from 'Bensin,' in Hamlet sade det vackrare, 1964)

Capturing the atmosphere Baltic jazz age, Parland saw jazz as an expression of revolt against older culture. He was fond of F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, and wrote in his poem "The dictatorship of jazz – a new form of Catholicism, / I have seen a thousand trouser-creases flutter in rhythmic feeling." (A History of Finland's Literature, edited by George C. Schoolfield, 1998, p. 483) In Sönder Parland also referred to another idol: "Motto: this novel is perhaps a plagiarism of Marcel Proust". When 'The Singing Fool' (1928) premiered in Helsinki – it was the first full-length sound film seen in Finland – Parland greeted it with an enthusiastic poem.

Parland died of scarlet fever on Novembr 10, 1930, at the age of 22, in Kaunas, as suddenly as Amy in Sönder. He was buried in Kaunas, but his grave at the churchyard disappeared during World War II. Parland's death was a deep blow to Björling, who once described his young protegée as 'Ett ljus tänt i livets fördumningsanstalt' (a candle light in life's dumbing down institution). In 1932 Rabbe Enckell edited a volume of his unpublished works, entitled Återsken. Unfinished Sönder appeared again in 1987. In this edition, Finland-Swedish words were changed into "Rikssvenska," Swedish as spoken in Sweden. A new edition of Sönder, with commentaries by Per Stam, came out in 2005.

For further reading: Sakernas sammanhang: om ting, människor och materiella relationer hos Henry Parland, James Joyce och Virginia Woolf by Ellen Frödin (2022); '"The Clearance Sale of Ideals" – Henry Parland and Finland-Swedish Literary Modernism, 1928–1930' by Per Stam, A Cultural History of the Avant-Garde in the Nordic Countries 1925-1950, edited by  Benedikt Hjartarson, Andrea Kollnitz, Per Stounbjerg, and Tania Ørum (2019); '"Mariengof är mindre pervers än vad jag trott". Henry Parland ja venäläinen imaginismi' by Tomi Huttunen, in Joutsen / Saven 2017-2018: Kotimaisen kirjallisuudentutkimuksen vuosikirja, edited by Päivi Koivisto & Daniela Silén (2018); Framkallning: skrift, konsumtion och sexualitet i Karin Boyes Astarte och Henry Parlands Sönder by Caroline Haux (2013); Fotografiet bleknar, hon försvinner: materia, begär och Gilles Deleuzes litteraturfilosofi i Henry Parlands Sönder by Jenny Wikström (2013); Erhållit Europa: vilket härmed erkännes: Henry Parland-studier by Clas Zilliacus (2011); Jag är ju utlänning vart jag än kommer: en bok om Henry Parland, edited by Agneta Rahikainen (2009); 'Henry Parland ja elokuvataide' by Max Ryynänen in Filmihullu 3 (2001); Krapula. Henry Parland och romanprojektet Sönder by Per Stam (1998); 'Henry Parland' by George C. Schoolfield, in A History of Finland's Literature, edited by George C. Schoolfield (1998); Kunskap och inlevelse: essayer och minnen by Oscar Parland (1991); 'Henry Parland' by Kim Nilsson, in Dictionary of Scandinavian Literature, edited by Virpi Zuck with Niels Ingwersen and Harald Næs (1990); 'Henry Parland' by Agneta Ara, in Författare om författare (1980) - See also 'Henry Parland semiotiikan edelläkävijänä Suomessa' by Henri Broms, in Alkukuvien jäljillä (1984), Agneta Ara's article 'Henry Parland' in Författare om författare (1980); 'Avantgardet i öster - finlandssvensk modernism' by Clas Zilliacus, in Den Svenska Litteraturen, Vol. 5 (1989); Studier i Henry Parland by Betsey Robbins and Stefan Malmberg (1985)

Selected works:

  • Idealrealisation, 1929 [The Clearance sale of ideals]
  • Återsken, 1932 (with Sönder)
  • Hamlet sade det vackrare: samlade dikter, 1964 (edited by Oscar Parland) [Hamlet put it more beautifully]
    - Hamlet sanoi sen kauniimmin (translated by Brita Polttila, 1967) 
  • Den stora dagenefter: samlad prosa 1, 1966 (edited by Oscar Parland) 
  • Säginteannat: samlad prosa 2, 1970 (edited by Oscar Parland) 
  • Sönder (om framkallning av Veloxpapper), 1987 [To pieces (on the Development of Velox Paper)]
    - Rikki: (velox-paperille vedostamisesta) (translated and afterword by Hannu Nieminen, 1996)
    - Sönder: (om framkallning av Veloxpapper) (edited by Per Stam, 2005) 
    - Déconstructions (translated by Elena Balzamo, 2006)
    - Vdrebezgi: roman; Stihotvoreniâ (translated by Ol’gi Mâèots, 2006)
    - Zerbrochen: (über das Entwickeln von Veloxpapier) (edited and translated by Renate Bleibtreu, 2007)
  • Khimaira, 2011 (edited and translated by Petri Salin)
  • Erhållit Europa, vilket härmed erkännes: dikter: Einmal Europa, dankend erhalten: Gedichte, 1926-1930, 2014 (herausgegeben, aus dem Schwedischen und mit einem Vorwort von Klaus-Jürgen Liedtke und einem Nachwort von Anders Olsson)
  • Dikter, 2018 (edited by Per Stam)
  • Prosa, 2019 (Henry Parlands skrifter 2; edited by Elisa Veit)
  • Kritik, 2019 (edited by Per Stam)
  • 'Runoja, luonnoksia ja fragmentteja,' 2020 (suom. Carlos Lievonen, Parnasso 6-7/2020)
  • Brev, 2020 (utgivna av Elisa Veit; översättningar av Oscar Parland och fyra andra)

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