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Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) Pushkin (1799-1837)

 

Russian 19th century author who often has been considered his country's greatest poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. Aleksandr Pushkin blended Old Slavonic with vernacular Russian into a rich, melodic language. He was the first to use everyday speech in his poetry. Pushkin's Romantic contemporaries were Byron (d. 1824) and Goethe (d. 1832), but his ironic attitude can be connected to the literature of the 18th century, especially to Voltaire. Pushkin wrote some 800 lyrics with a dozen narrative poems.

Let me acquaint you with this fellow,
The hero of my novel, pray,

Without preamble delay:
My friend Onegin was begotten
By the Neva, where maybe you
Originated, reader, too
Or where your lustre's not forgotten:
I liked to stroll there formerly,
But now th North's unsafe for me.

(from Eugene Onegin: A Novel in Verse, translated by Stanley Mitchell,
Penguin Books, 2008, pp. 2-3)

Aleksandr Pushkin was born in Moscow into a cultured but poor aristocratic family. On his father's side he was descended from an ancient noble family and on his mother's side he was a great-great-grandson of a black Abyssinian, Abram Petrovich Hannibal (1696-1781), who was sent as a gift to Peter the Great (1672-1725) by the Russian ambassador in Constantinople. Exceptionally talented, he was educated in France in the best European fashion. Eventually he became a general of artillery for the Russian Navy and was granted nobility. While serving in the French army in his youth,  he adopted the surname Gannibal, or Hannibal. Pushkin himself had black hair and swarthly complexion.

In his childhood the future poet was entrusted to nursemaids, French tutors, and governesses. He learned Russian from household serfs and from his nanny, Arina Rodionovna. Pushkin started to write poems from an early age. His first published poem was written when he was only 14.

At the Imperial Lyceum at Tsarskoye Selo (1811-1817) Pushkin began to write first major work, Ruslan and Ludmila (1820), a kind of fairy story in verse. It was based on Russian folk-tales which his grandmother had told him – in French. Years later at his father's estate he listened to legends and fairy tales told by his old nurse Arina Rodionovna. "There is the Russian soul… there it smells of Rus’!" Pushkin said in the prologue of the 1828 edition of the work. (Folklore and the Construction of National Identity in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature by Jessika Aguilar, 2016, p. 35) In 1817 Pushkin accepted a post at the foreign office at St. Petersburg. He became associated with members of a radical movement who participated later in the Decembrist uprising in 1825.

Several of Pushkin's liberal friends were involved in the affair. Some of them were hanged or exiled for life to Siberia, but Pushkin apparently did not take part in their conspiracy; and he was absent in the south at the time of the insurrection. In May 1820 Pushkin was banished from the town because of his political poems, among them 'Ode to Liberty' and  'The Village,' which were circulated in handwritten copies. "I sing of Freedom's victorious fire / Chastised vice enthroned on royal bench," he wrote in the 'Ode to Libery'. (Translated by M.A. DuVernet, in Pushkin's Ode to Liberty: The Life and Loves of Alexander Pushkin by M.A. DuVernet, 2014, p. 11) Its full text was not printed until 1906. Noteworthy, Pushkin's friends did not consider him a political person. One Decembrist characterized his posturing as "chatter and balderdash".

On May 6, 1820, Pushkin left St. Petersburg for his exile. Upon arriving at Ekaterinoslav, he caught a cold. In the outskirts of the Russian Empire, Pushkin discovered the poetry of Lord Byron, whose influence is manifested in the long narrative poem entitled Kavkazsky plennik (The Prisoner of the Caucasus). With its publication, the critic Vissarion Belinsky declared that "the grandiose image of the Caucasus with its bellicose inhabitants was re-created for the first time in Russian poetry – and only in Pushkin's poem did the Russian public become acquainted for the first time with the Caucasus . . ." ('Pushkin and the Caucasus' by Harsha Ram, in The Pushkin Handbook, 2005, edited by David M. Bethea, in p. 379) Pushkin himself said later that the poem was immature.

While living in exile in different parts of Russia, Pushkin gradually rose to the position of the leader of the Romantic movement. In May 1823, during his stay at Kishinev, where Pushkin spent almost three years, he started his major masterpiece, Eugene Onegin (1833). In the summer of 1823 he moved to Odessa

Count M.S. Vorontsov, governor-general of Odessa, did not have high opinions about the poet: he dismissed him as a weak imitator of Lord Byron. Pushkin had an love affair with his wife. The doggerel poem Pushkin wrote about the governor-general circulated from hand to hand: "Half a lord and half a merchant, / Half a sage and half a dope; / Half a cheat – but yet there's hope / That in the end he'll be complete." (Prince Michael Vorontsov: Viceroy to the Tsar by Anthony L. H. Rhinelander, 1990, pp. 75-76) Vorontsov made later an appearance in Tolstoy's novella 'Hadji Murad' (1912): "To Vorontsóv, and especially to his wife, it seemed that they were not only living a very modest life, but one full of privations; while to the inhabitants of the place their luxury was surprising and extraordinary." (Hadji Murád by Leo Tolstoy, translated by Aylmer Maude, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1912, p. 47)

Pushkin's troubles with the authorities continued. In 1824 he was banished to his family estate of Mikhailovskoe. Pushkin's father tried in vain to keep his son under his control, but the result was, that the poet's friends applied to the Czar, and Pushkin père was exiled from his own estate. The new Czar, Nicholas I, allowed Pushkin to return to the capital. Due to the Czar's patronage, he openly abandoned revolutionary sentiments. In 1829 he made a four-month visit to Transcaucasia, witnessing the action with the Russian Army against the Turks. In 1830 he visited another family estate, Boldino, and was stranded by cholera for three months. This was a very productive literary period. He wrote a group of plays, among them The Avaricious Knight, Mozart and Salieri, The Stone Guest, and The Feast During the Plague.

Eugene Oneginis considered the greatest masterpiece of Russian literature, but at the time of its appearance, only a few recognized its significance. The protagonist is a dashing young aristocrat: "His hair was cut in the latest mode; / He dined, he danced, he fenced, he rode. / In French he would converse politely / As well as write; and how he bowed!" (Eugene Onegin: A Novel in Verse, translated by Babette Deutch, The Heritage Press, 1943, p. 6) On inheriting his uncle's estate, he retires to country. Soon Onegin befriends Vladimir Lensky, who is in love with a local girl, Olga Larina. Her unpolished, romantic elder sister Tatiana falls in love with Onegin, but he rejects Tatiana's love. He considers himself mysteriously doomed, he would be a bad husband. "I must confess, though loth to hurt you, / I was not born for happiness; / I am unworthy of your virtue; / I'd bring you nothing but distress." (Ibid., p. 65) At a party Onegin insults Olga, and Lensky challenges him to a duel, and is shot dead. Three years later Onegin meets Tatiana who is married to a prince. She is the last of the principal characters introduced to the reader, but she is also central for the story. Onegin declares his love to her, and writes her a series of passionate letters. Now it is her turn to reject him: "I love you (why should I dissemble?) / But I became another's wife; / I shall be true to him through life." (Ibid., p. 154) Tatiana has been regarded as the ideal of Russian womanhood. She is faithful, sincere, and most of all, she puts the happiness of her husband ahead of her own personal feelings. Among others Turgenev modelled his heroines after her. – Vladimir Nabokov's commentary and translation of Pushkin's work arouse much controversy. The ten-year-long work was first brought out in 1964 by the Bollingen Foundation in four volumes.

The libretto for Tchaikovsky's opera Eugene Onegin (1879) was made by the composer's brother Modeste. Originally the singer Elizaveta Lavrovskaya suggested to subject to Tchaikovsky. At first, he was afraid that he would provoke a reaction from many of those devoted to the poem. "Where shall I find the Tatyana whom Pushkin imagined and whom I have tried to illustrate musically?" Tchaikovsky asked in a letter to Nadezhda von Meck in 1877. "Where is the artist who can even approach the ideal Onegin, that cold dandy penetrated to the marrow with wordly bon ton?" (Slavonic and Romantic Music: Essays and Studies by Gerald Abraham, St. Martin's Press, 1968, p. 148) The first performance, directed by Nikolay Rubinstein, took place in 1879 at the Moscow Conservatoire. Since the Mariyinsky Theatre production in St Petersburg in 1884 the opera has secured a place in the repertory all over the world.

In between moving from place to place and writing, Pushkin pursued love affairs. Occasionally they surface in his poems: "Ah, little feet, how I did love them! / Now on what flowers are they set?" (Eugene Onegin, p. 14) On the death of Amalia Riznich, the wife of a Dalmatian merchant, he wrote: "For sweet remembered days that come not back, / I find no tear and no lament." (A Book of Russian Verse, edited by C. M. Bowra, Macmillan, 1943, p. 17)

Boris Godunov (1831), a historical tragedy, was the work, as Pushkin said, he loved best of all. The story drew on the life of Boris Fyodorovich Godunov, the Czar of Russia from 1598 to 1605. Boris is haunted by guilt over the murder of the Tsarevich Dmitry. When an ambitious young monk claims to be Dmitry, Boris tries to defend his throne, but he falls ill and dies. The composer Mussorgsky used this play as the basis of his opera (1869-74) of the same name.

ONE
What's that noise there?

ANOTHER
Listen! What's that noise?
The people are wailing, they are falling down like waves,
Row after row . . . more  . . . more . . . Well, brother,
It's our turn; quick now! get on your knees!

THE PEOPLE
(on their knees, weeping and wailing)
Ah, have mercy, father! rule over us!
Be our father, our tsar
.
(from Boris Godunov, in Boris Godunov, Litte Tragedies, and Others: The Complete Plays, translated by Richard Prevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, Vintage Books, 2023, p. 11)

Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin (1831) was possibly inspired by the novels of Sir Walter Scott. Pushkin published the work anonymously and surprised Russian readers. However, the tales did not gain the popularity of his poems. Proper Mérimée, who admired Pushkin's light touch, translated Tales of Belkin into French. 'The Queen of Spades' (1834), Pushkin's most famous short story, was later made into an opera by Tchaikovsky and a one act ballet by Roland Petit. The tale about a gambler's breakdown struck close to the poet's own life – he was a gambler, too, to the end of his life.

In 1833 Pushkin travelled east to the Urals for historical research. Next year he received an appointment as a functionary at the court, but his minor status was considered a humiliation. His debts were mounting and he was worried about his wife's possible infidelity.

Arap Petra Velikogo (The  Blackmoor of Peter the Geat), a historical novel, on which Pushkin worked his last years, was about his maternal great grandfather, who is called Ibrahim in the story. It is not known why he left it unfinished. The Romanov Tsar had been a central figure in his narrative poem 'The Bronze Horseman' (1833), partly inspired by the flooding of Petersburg in 1824.

Pushkin was ambivalent about the "awful Emperor," who "despised humanity perhaps more than did Napoleon" (St. Petersburg: A Cultural History by Solomon Volkov, 1995, p. 12), but at the beginning of the poem Pushkin famously glorified Peter for cutting a window through to Europe and pours out his heart into words every Russian knows: "I love you, Peter's creation". Referring to this line, Dostoyevsky remarked in the notes for a section of A Diary of a Writer for 1876, "I confess, I do not love it". (Pushkin and the Genres of Madness: The Masterpieces of 1833 by Gary Rosenshield, 2003, p. 183) Only the Prologue to 'The Bronze Horseman', with the wretched  Finnish fisherman, was allowed to be published during Pushkin's life, it appeared under the title 'Petersburg. An extract from a poem'.

In 1829 Pushkin fell in love with 16-year-old Natalya Nikolayevna Goncharova, whom he married two years later. Her family was as impoverished as Pushkin's, but she become a beauty of the Imperial court. The marriage was unhappy and Pushkin had little peace for intense creative activity. His wife was invited to every ball at the palace, and her frivolous social life led Pushkin into debt and eventually to his early death.

The gossip of an affair between Baron Georges d'Anthès and his wife started to spread. An anonymous note informed Pushkin that he had been elected to "The Serene Order of Cuckolds". Although d'Anthès married Natalya's sister, the scandal was not quite over. Pushkin defended in a duel his wife's honor with her brother-in-law. D'Anthès fired first his pistol. Fatally wounded, Pushkin fired also his shot and his opponent got a slight wound. Pushkin died on February 10 (New Style), 1837. The Czar buried him in the monastery near Mikhailovskoye, in secret for fear of popular risings at the funeral. He also paid all the remaining debts of the poet. Natalya received a pension.. D'Anthès was expelled from Russia. He died in 1895.

As an essayist Pushkin was prolific but most of his writings remained in draft form and over half were published posthumously due to repressive censorship. Chiefly Pushkin concentrated on literature and history, but he did not develop a systematic philosophical view – it has been said that Pushkin lacked "central vision". He saw that overwhelming use of French by the upper classes delayed the progress of Russian literature. In this matter Pushkin was not speaking without his own experience – his first language was French, he read French writers well on into adolescence, and his characters, such as Onegin, spoke French. The responsibility of the Decembrist Rebellion Pushkin shifted onto foreign influences. He was fascinated by democratic republicanism but perceived the tendency to idealize the natural state of life, as exemplified both in the work of James Fenimore Cooper and in political discussion in the United States, as was shown in his essay "Dzhon Tenner" (1836, John Tanner).

In his 1924 poem 'Iubileinoe,' written for the 125th anniversary of the birth of Pushkin, Vladimir Maiakovsky imagined himself working together with the poet on propaganda posters. He wanted to blow up  his monument in Moskow with dynamite. Daniil Kharms parodied the Pushkin myth in Anecdotes from the Life of Pushkin (1937), but in general, in the Stalinist Soviet Union, he was comradized and his legacy served as a tool for nationalist discourse. If measured by the number of copies of his books printed between 1918 and 1954, Pushkin was the most popular poet of the period. ('Pushkin in Soviet and post-Soviet Culture' by Evgeny Dobrenko, in The Cambridge Companion to Pushkin, edited by Andrew Kahn, 2006, p. 2009-213)

For further reading: Puskin by D.S. Mirsky (1926); Pushkin by Ernest Simmons (1964); Pushkin by David Magarshack (1967); Alexander Pushkin by Walter Vickery (1970); Russiam Views of Pushkin, ed. by D. Richards (1976); Alexandr Pushkin: A Critical Study by A.D.P. Briggs (1983); Pushkin's Prose by Abram Lezhnev (1983); Alexander Pushkin, ed. by Harold Bloom (1987); Russian Views of Pushkin's 'Eugene Onegin', ed. by Sona Stephanie Sandler (1989); Eugene Onegin by A.D.P. Briggs (1992); Pushkin by Robin Edmonds (1994); Pushkin by Iurii Lotman (1995); Pushkin's Poems by J.Thomas Shaw (1996); Social Functions of Literature: Alexander Pushkin and Russian Culture by Paul Debreczeny (1997); Pushkin and the Genres of Madness: The Masterpieces of 1833 by Gary Rosenshield (2003); The Cambridge Companion to Pushkin, edited by Andrew Kahn (2006); Pushkin's Lyric Intelligence by Andrew Kahn (2008); A Commentary to Pushkin's Lyric Poetry, 1826-1836 by Michael Wachtel (2012); Taboo Pushkin: Topics, Texts, Interpretations, edited by Alyssa Dinega Gillespie (2012); Challenging the Bard: Dostoevsky and Pushkin, a Study of Literary Relationship by Gary Rosenshield (2013); Unlikely Futurist : Pushkin and the Invention of Originality in Russian Modernism by James Rann (2020); Tragic Encounters: Pushkin and European Romanticism by Maksim Hanukai (2023); Pushkin, the Decembrists, and Civic Sentimentalism by Emily Wang (2023) - See also: Nikolay Gogol, Prosper Merimée. 

Selected works:

  • 'Vól'nost': Oda,'  1817
    - 'Ode to Liberty' (in Pushkin's Ode to Liberty: The Life and Loves of Alexander Pushkin by M.A. DuVernet, 2014)
    - 'Vapaus' (teoksessa Moskovasta Kaukasukselle: Valitut runot 1815-1836, suom. Olli Hyvärinen, 2018)
  • Ruslan i Lyudmila, 1820
    - Ruslan and Liudmila (tr. Walter Arndt, 1974; in In Collected Narrative and Lyrical Poetry, 1984) / Ruslan and Lyudmila (tr. Roger Clarke, 2005)
    - Ruslan ja Ljudmila (teoksessa Kertovia runoelmia, suom. Aarno Saleva, 1999)  
    - films: Ruslan i Lyudmila, 1915, dir. by Wladyslaw Starewicz, starring Arseniy Bibikov, Sofya Goslavskaya and Ivan Mozzhukhin; Ruslan i Lyudmila, 1972, dir. by Aleksandr Ptushko, starring Valeri Kozinets, Natalya Petrova and Andrei Abrikosov; Ruslan and Lyudmila, 1996 (TV film), dir. by Hans Hulscher, starring Vladimir Ognovenko, Anna Netrebko and Mikhail Kit
  • Kavkazsky plennik, 1820-21
    - Prisoner of the Caucasus (in Six Poems from Pushkin, tr. Jacob Krup, 1936)
    - Kaukaasian vanki (teoksessa Kertovia runoelmia (suom. Aarno Saleva, 1999);   
  • Vadim, 1821 (written, unfinished tragedy)
  • Skazhi, kakoy sudboy... (written, unfinished comedy)
  • Bakhchisaraysky fontan, 1823
    - The Fountain of Bakhchisary (in Collected Narrative and Lyrical Poetry, tr. Walter Arndt, 1984)
    - Bahtshisarain suihkulähde (teoksessa Kertovia runoelmia, suom. Aarno Saleva, 1999)  
  • Tsygany, 1824
    - The Gypsies (in Collected Narrative and Lyrical Poetry, tr. Walter Arndt, 1984)
    - Mustalaiset (teoksessa Kertovia runoelmia, suom. Aarno Saleva, 1999)  
  • Stsena iz Fausta, 1828 (scene from Faust, fragment)
  • Graf Nulin, 1828
    - Count Nulin (in Collected Narrative and Lyrical Poetry, tr. Walter Arndt, 1984)
  • Poltava, 1829
    - Poltava (in Six Poems from Pushkin, tr. Jacob Krup, 1936; in Collected Narrative and Lyrical Poetry, tr. Walter Arndt, 1984)
    - Mazeppa: 3-näytöksinen ooppera (suom. Jertta Ratia-Kähönen, 1996) / Pultava (teoksessa Kertovia runoelmia (suom. Aarno Saleva, 1999) 
    - Mazeppa, TV film 1996, prod. EuroArts Entertainment, Brilliant Media, Videal GmbH, dir. Brian Large, starring Nikolai Putilin, Sergei Alexashkin, Larissa Diadkova, Irina Loskutova; filmed at Mariinsky Theater, St. Petersburg
  • Boris Godunov, 1831 (tragedy, basis for Modest Musorgsky's opera)
    - Boris Godounov (tr. Alfred Hayes, 1918) / Boris Godunov (tr. Philip L. Barbour, 1953; D.M. Thomas, 1985; Nicholas Rzevsky, 1997; Richard Prevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, in Boris Godunov, Litte Tragedies, and Others: The Complete Plays, 2023)
    - Boris Godunov (suom. Matti Rossi, 1985) / Boris Godunov: historiallinen draama (suom. Martti Hännikäinen, 2003)
    - films: Boris Godunov, 1954, dir. by Vera Stroyeva, starring Aleksandr Pirogov; Boris Godunov, 1986, dir. by Sergei Bondarchuk, starring Sergei Bondarchuk; Boris Godounov, 1989, dir. Andrzej Zulawski, starring Ruggero Raimondi; Boris Godunov, 1990 (TV play), dir. by Humphrey Burton, starring Robert Lloyd
  • Pir vo vryemya chumy, 1832 (tragedy, based on The City of Plague by John Wilson, pseud. of Christopher North)
    - A Feast in the City of the Plague, in Slavonic Review VI, 6 (tr. A. Werth, 1927-1928) / A Feast During the Plague (in Little Tragedies, tr. Nancy K. Anderson, 2000)
  • Povesti pokoynogo Ivana Petrovicha Belkina, 1831 (includes Vystrel, Metel, Grobovshchik, Stantsionnyi smotritel, Baryshnia-Krest'ianka)
    - Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin / Tales of Belkin (tr. Gillon R. Aitken and David Budgen, 1983; in The Queen of Spades and Other Stories, tr. Alan Myers, 1997) / The Tales of the late Ivan Petrovich Belkin (in Novels, Tales, Journeys. The Complete Prose of Alexander, translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, 2016)
    - Lumituisku (suom. Oskar Helenius, 1905) / Laukaus y. m. kertomuksia (suomentanut Juho Ahava, 1908) / Neiti talonpoikaistyttönä ja muita kertomuksia (suom. 1917) / Ivan Petrovitsh Belkin vainajan kertomuksia (suom. 1948) / Edesmenneen Ivan Belkinen kertomukset (teoksessa Romaanit ja kertomukset, suom. J.A. Hollo, 1962) / Laukaus ja muita kertomuksia (suom. Juho Ahava ja V- Hämeen-Anttila, 1966) / Patarouva ja muita kertomuksia (suom. Juho Ahava ja V. Hämeen-Anttila, 1980)
    - films: Baryshnya-krestyanka, 1916, dir. by Olga Preobrazhenskaya;  Kollezhskiy registrator, 1925, dir. by Ivan Moskvin, Yuri Zhelyabuzhsky; Nostalgie, 1937, dir. by Viktor Tourjansky; Coups de feu, 1939, dir. by René Barberis; Der Postmeister, 1940, dir. by Gustav Ucicky, starring Heinrich George; Un Colpo di pistola, 1942, dir. by Renato Castellani, starring Assia Noris, Fosco Giachetti and Antonio Centa; Rakkauden risti, 1946, dir. by Teuvo Tulio, starring Regina Linnanheimo, Oscar Tengström, Rauli Tuomi, Ville Salminen; Uçuruma dogru, 1949,  dir. by Sadan Kamil; Dunja, 1955, dir. by Josef von Báky, starring Eva Bartok; Metel, 1964, dir. by Vladimir Basov; Vystrel, 1966, dir. by Naum Trakhtenberg; Und der Regen verwischt jede Spur, 1972, dir. by Alfred Vohrer; Dunja, 1980, dir. by Kreso Sidik; Baryshnya-krestyanka, 1995, dir. by Aleksei Sakharov, starring Elena Korikova, Dmitriy Shcherbina and Leonid Kuravlyov
  • Motsart i Salyeri, 1832 (play, written 1830)
    - Mozart and Salieri: The Little Tragedies (tr. Antony Wood, 1983) / Mozart and Salieri (in Little Tragedies, tr. Nancy K. Anderson, 2000)
    - films: Mozart da Salieri, 1957 (TV film), prod. Qartuli Telepilmi, dir. by Merab Jaliashvili, script by Konstantine Chichinadze, starring Ramaz Chkhikvadze and Erosi Mandjgaladze 
  • Istoriia Pugacheva, 1833
    - The History of Pugachev (tr. Earl Sampson, 1983)
  • Yevgeny Onegin, 1833 (basis for Tchaikovsky's opera of the same name)
    - Evgeny Onegin (tr. Oliver Elton, 1937) / Yevgeny Onegin (tr. Walter Arndt, 1963; A.D.P. Briggs, 1995) / Eugene Onegin: A Novel in Verse (tr. Babette Deutch, 1943; Vladimir Nabokov, 1964) / Eugene Onegin (tr. Charles Johnston, 1977; James E. Falen, 1995)
    - Jevgeni Onegin: runoromaani (suom. Lauri Kemiläinen, 1936) / Jevgeni Onegin: 3-näytöksinen ooppera (suom. Hannu Heikkilä, 1984) / Jevgeni Onegin: libretto (suom. Riitta-Maija Ahonen)
    - films: Yevgeny Onegin, 1911, dir. by Vasili Goncharov; Yevgeni Onegin, 1958, dir. by Roman Tikhomirov, starring Vadim Medvedev, Yevgeni Kibkalo and Ariadna Shengelaya; Evgeniy Onegin, 1984, dir. by Kirk Browning, starring Wolfgang Brendel; Eugene Onegin, 1988, dir. by Petr Weigl, starring Michal Docolomanský; Yevgeny Onyegin, 1994 (TV film), dir. by Humphrey Burton, starring Wojtek Drabowicz; Onegin, 1999, dir. by Martha Fiennes, starring Ralph Fiennes, Liv Tyler, Lena Heady, Toby Stephens; 2007 (TV film), dir. by Andrea Breth, Brian Large, starring Peter Mattei; Eugène Onéguine, 2009, dir. Chloé Perlemuter, starring  Mariusz Kwiecien, Makvala Kasrashvili, Tatiana Monogarova and Margarita Mamsirova  
  • Pikovaya dama, 1834 (later made into an opera by Tchaikovsky)
    - The Queen of Spades (in The Queen of Spades and Other Stories, tr. Rosemary Edmonds, 1962; in The Queen of Spades and Other Stories, tr. Alan Myers, 1997; in Novels, Tales, Journeys. The Complete Prose of Alexander, translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, 2016)
    - Patarouva: 3-näyt. ooppera 7:nä kuvaelmana (suom. Martti Wuori, 1928) / Patarouva (teoksessa Romaanit ja kertomukset, suom. J.A. Hollo, 1962; teoksessa Patarouva ja muita kertomuksia, suom. P. Alarik Pesonen, 1980)
    - films: Pikovaya dama, 1910, dir. by Pyotr Chardynin; Pikovaya dama, 1916, dir. by Yakov Protazanov; Pique Dame, 1927, dir. by Aleksandr Razumnyj, starring Jenny Jugo, Rudolf Forster and Alexandra Schmitt; The Queen of Spades, 1948, dir. by Thorold Dickinson, starring Anton Walbrook, Edith Evans, Yvonne Mitchell, Ronald Howard; Pikovaya dama, 1960, dir. by Roman Tikhomirov, starring Oleg Strizhenov, Zurab Andjaparidze and Larisa Avdeyeva; La Dame de pique, 1965, dir. by Léonard Keigel, starring Dita Parlo; Eti... tri vernye karty..., 1988, dir. by Aleksandr Orlov, starring Aleksandr Feklistov, Stefaniya Stanyuta and Vera Glagoleva; Pique Dame, 2002 (TV film), dir. Brian Large 
  • Stseny iz rytsarskikh vremen, 1835 (written, unfinished drama)
  • Papessa Ioanna, 1834-35 (written, outline of a drama)
  • Yegipetskiye nochi, 1835
    - Dubrovsky and Egyptian Nights (tr. Robert Chandler, 2003) / Egyptian Nights (in Novels, Tales, Journeys. The Complete Prose of Alexander, translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, 2016)
    - Egyptin öitä (teoksessa Romaanit ja kertomukset, suom. J.A. Hollo, 1962),
  • Skupoy rytsar, 1836 (tragedy, published under the pseudonym "R" in the journal Sovremennik)
    - The Avaricious Knight (tr. in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature XV, 1933) / The Miserly Knight (in Little Tragedies, tr. Nancy K. Anderson, 2000)
  • Kapitanskaya dochka, 1836
    - The Captain's Daughter (in The Queen of Spades and Other Stories, tr. Rosemary Edmonds, 1962; in The Queen of Spades and Other Stories, tr. Alan Myers, 1997, in Novels, Tales, Journeys. The Complete Prose of Alexander, translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, 2016)
    - Kapteenin tytär (suom. Samuli S., 1876; Siiri Hannikainen, 1935; Juuso Mustonen, 1946) / Kapteenintytär (teoksessa Romaanit ja kertomukset, suom. J.A. Hollo, 1962)
    - films: La Figlia del capitano, 1947, dir. by Mario Camerini, starring Irasema Dilián, Olga Solbelli, Amedeo Nazzari;  La Tempesta, 1958, dir. by Alberto Lattuada, starring Silvana Mangano, Van Heflin, Viveca Lindfors, Agnes Moorehead, Robert Keith; Kapitanskaya dochka, 1959, dir. by Vladimir Kaplunovsky, starring Iya Arepina, Oleg Strizhenov, Vladimir Dorofeyev; Russkiy bunt, 2000, dir. by Aleksandr Proshkin, starring Vladimir Mashkov, Mateusz Damiecki and Vladimir Ilin
  • Puteshestvie v Arzrum vo vremya pohoda 1829 goda, 1836
    - A Journey to Arzrum (tr. Birgitta Ingemanson, 1974) / Journey to Arzrum (in Novels, Tales, Journeys. The Complete Prose of Alexander, translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, 2016)
    - Matka Erzerumiin vuoden 1829 sotaretken aikana (suom. Erkki Peuranen, 2007)
  • Rusalka, 1837 (tragedy, written 1829-32)
    - The Rusalka (in Poetry and Progress in Russia, tr. R. Newmarch, 1907)
  • Arap Petra Velikogo, 1837 (in Sovremennik 6)
    - Peter the Great's Negro (in The Queen of Spades and Other Stories, tr. Mrs. Sutherland Edwards, 1892) / Peter the Great's Negro (in The Captain’s Daughter and Other Tales, tr. Natalie Duddington, 1933) / The Negro of Peter the Great (in The Queen of Spades and Other Stories, tr. Rosemary Edmonds, 1960) / Peter the Great's Blackamoor (in The Queen of Spades and Other Stories, tr. Alan Myers, 1999 / The Moor of Peter the Great (in Novels, Tales, Journeys. The Complete Prose of Alexander, translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, 2016)
    - Pietari Suuren neekeri (teoksessa Romaanit ja kertomukset, suom. J.A. Hollo, 1962)
  • Kamenny gost, 1839 (play, written 1830)
    - The Stone Guest (Little Tragedies, tr. Nancy K. Anderson, 2000)
  • Istoriya sela Goryukhina, 1837
    - The Tales of Belkin: With the History of the Village of Goryukhino (tr. Gillon Aitken and David Budgen, 1983 / The History of the Village of Goryukhino (in Novels, Tales, Journeys. The Complete Prose of Alexander, translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, 2016)
  • Dubrovsky, 1832, 1841 (unfinished)
    - Dubrovsky and Egyptian Nights (tr. Robert Chandler, 2003) / Dubrovsky (in Novels, Tales, Journeys. The Complete Prose of Alexander, translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, 2016)
    - Aatelisrosvo Dubrovskij (suom. Sassi, 1895) / Dubrovski (suom. A. J.) / Dubrovskij (teoksessa Romaanit ja kertomukset, suom. J.A. Hollo, 1962) / Dubrovskij (suom. J.A. Hollo, 1965)
    - films: Dubrowsky, der Räuber Ataman, 1921, dir. by Pyotr Chardynin; Dubrovskiy, 1936, dir. by Aleksandr Ivanovsky; Blagorodnyy razboynik Vladimir Dubrovskiy, 1989, dir. by Vyacheslav Nikiforov, starring Mikhail Efremov, Marina Zudina and Vladimir Samojlov  
  • Mednyi Vsadnik, 1841
    - The Bronze Horseman (in The Bronze Horseman: Selected Poems of Alexander Pushkin, tr. D.M. Thomas, 1981)
    - Vaskiratsastaja (teoksessa Kertovia runoelmia, suom. Aarno Saleva, 1999) 
  • The Poems, Prose and Plays of Pushkin, 1936 (ed. by Avram Yarmolinsky)
  • Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, 1937-49 (17 vols.)
  • Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, 1949 (19 vols.)
  • The Letters of Alexander Pushkin, 1963 (3 vols., ed. and tr. by J. Thomas Shaw)
  • Selected Verse with and Introduction and Prose Translations, 1964 (tr. John Fennell)
  • Complete Prose Tales of Alexandre Sergeyevich Pushkin, 1967 (tr. Gillon R. Aitken)
  • Pushkin Threefold: Narrative, Lyric Polemic and Ribald Verse, 1972 (tr. Walter Arndt)
  • Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, 1977-79 (10 vols., ed. by B.V. Tomachevskim)
  • Complete Prose Fiction, 1983 (edited by Paul Debreczeny)
  • Epigrams and Satirical Versem, 1984 (ed. and tr. Cynthia Whittaker)
  • Collected Narrative and Lyrical Poetry, 1984 (tr. Walter Arndt)
  • Tainiye zapiski 1836-1837, 1986
    - Secret Journal 1836-1837 (tr. Mikhail Armalinsky and Tjody Adn)
  • Dnevniki. Zapiski, 1995
  • The Queen of Spades and Other Stories, 1997 (tr. Alan Myers)
  • Lirika A.S. Pushkina v tatarskikh perevodakh, 2005
  • The Gypsies & Other Narrative Poems, 2006 (translated with an introduction and notes by Antony Wood; engravings by Simon Brett)
  • Boris Godunov and Other Dramatic Works, 2007 (translated with notes by James E. Falen)
  • "V nadezhde slavy i dobra--" : izbrannaia poeziia / A.S. Pushkin = "In Hopes of Fame and Bliss to Come--": Poetical Works, 2008 (ed. I.G. Irskaia, and IU.G. Fridshtein)
  • Selected Lyric Poetry, 2009 (translated from the Russian and annotated by James E. Falen)
  • Novels, Tales, Journeys. The Complete Prose of Alexander Pushkin, 2016 (translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky)
  • Boris Godunov, Little Tragedies, and Others: the Complete Plays, 2023 (translated from the Russian by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky)


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